In the second part of our special focus on heart health, NutraIngredients examines the science that backs up the health benefits of ‘the big four’ cholesterol reducing ingredients: phytosterols, omega-3s, beta-glucan, and soy protein... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) heart health claim for soy protein established in 1999 states that "25 grams of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease." Currently, 11 other countries have approved health claims for soy protein's potential to lower blood cholesterol and lower the risk of coronary heart disease. However, recently the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) issued a negative opinion to a health claim submission linking soy protein and reduced cholesterol – stating that there was not enough evidence of causation to approve a claim in Europe. A 2008 study suggested that the cholesterol-lowering effects of soy protein may by located in the liver. The study, published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, reported that soybean protein was found to stimulate the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) transcription in liver cells.