Doubts Raised About Key BPA Substitute

February 11, 2016 | Chemistry World

Accumulating research suggests that bisphenol S (BPS) – a preferred substitute for BPA – has a very similar toxicological profile to BPA, and may be no less harmful.

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Sustainable Innovation through Green Chemistry: Engaging graduate students outside of disciplinary silos

February 10, 2016 | McGill

Green chemistry is a rapidly growing area of interest for industry as companies face increased regulatory requirements, supply constraints, and consumer demands for sustainable products.


Can Manufacturing Save The World? Inspiration from Tesla, Owens Corning

February 10, 2016 | GreenBiz

Manufacturing and industrial production long have been the poster children for what is wrong with our current economic system.


Renewable Fuels from Algae Boosted by NREL Refinery Process

February 9, 2016 | Environmental Export

A new biorefinery process developed by scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has proven to be significantly more effective at producing ethanol from algae than previous research.


Senator Uses Industry Roots to Prod Companies to do Better

February 9, 2016 | E&E Publishing, LLC

Because of how the chemical industry developed, whoever invented that particular brand of paint probably was thinking about how well it would work on Coons' walls -- not what would happen when its fumes filled his house, scientists say.


The Real Key to Remaking Manufacturing: Chemistry

February 9, 2016 | GreenBiz

In a vision of production where natural resource inputs drastically are reduced by constantly cycling materials back through supply chains, niche upcycling or re-manufacturing efforts tend to win out over models with potential to cost-effectively scale.


Bees Could Engineer Next-Generation Energy Storage

February 8, 2016 | Clean Technica

Energy storage could be the next item on the list when it comes to listing all the reasons we need to save the world’s bee population from collapse.


Guest Column: Tax Credit Would Support Value-Added Agriculture in Southwest Iowa

February 7, 2016 | The Daily Nonpareil

In the agricultural economy, declining commodity prices continue to be a concern. In corn- and soybean-rich southwest Iowa, this is of particular concern.




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Contributed by Mark Holtzapple, Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University

Figure 1.png

In 1996, we received the first Green Chemistry Challenge Award (Academic) for our process that converts waste biomass to animal feed, chemicals, and fuels. This award came at a very opportune time.  Less than one year prior to receiving the award, a start-up company was formed to commercialize our process.  The award validated the investment, which continues to this day.


Our process is an example of an entire class of biomass conversion processes, which we call the carboxylate platform.  It uses carboxylic acids and their salts as key intermediates to make industrial chemicals and transportation fuels (e.g., gasoline, jet fuel).  Potential feedstocks include municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, animal manure, agricultural residues, and energy crops.


Figure 1 shows an overview of the carboxylate platform.  Biomass components (e.g., cellulose, hemicellulose) are biologically converted to carboxylate salts (e.g., acetate, propionate, butyrate) via a mixed culture of microorganisms. The process is similar to classical anaerobic digestion, except that methanogens are inhibited, which allows carboxylate salts to accumulate rather than being converted to methane.

Figure 2.png



Using well-established chemical routes (Figure 2), the carboxylates are transformed into a wide variety of products, many of which are hydrocarbons commonly employed in gasoline and jet fuel.  In some cases, hydrogen is required in the chemical conversion step.  The hydrogen can be produced by gasifying undigested residues, or by reforming abundant natural gas.








Figure 3.pngFigure 3 is a schematic of the process. If the biomass lignin content is high, it is pretreated to enhance its digestibility. If the lignin content is low, pretreatment is not required.  Using a mixed culture of microorganisms derived from soil, the biomass is fermented to carboxylate salts, which are recovered and chemically converted to the products shown in Figures 1 and 2.




Table 1 compares the capital cost and selling price of hydrocarbon fuels from the three biomass conversion platforms.  Because of its simplicity, the carboxylate platform has a substantially lower capital cost, which allows for a low selling price for hydrocarbon fuels.


Table 1.png


The carboxylate platform is being performed in a demonstration plant that can process up to 1 ton per day of biomass feedstock (Figures 4 to 6).



                                                                 Figure 4.png

                                                                     Figure 5.png

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Contributed by Rob Falken, Managing Director and Inventor of BLOOM, and Abby Fisher, Design Director, BLOOM


Bioproducts, not biofuels. This is our mantra at BLOOM Foam, and here’s why. Despite the rising popularity of algae-derived biofuels as a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based fuels, the production process has proven to be both costly and wasteful, outweighing any cost-saving benefits for sustainable profits. Harnessing biofuels from algae has been explored for nearly three decades, but still requires the need to grow specific strains of algae in tightly controlled conditions. This approach does little to combat the growing algal bloom problem caused by rising global temperatures, human population growth, and increased nutrient loading of waterways worldwide.


BLOOM Foam derives its algae from freshwater sources—like lakes and ponds—at risk of algal bloom. In doing so, we help to mitigate and control a problem detrimental to local ecologies and human health and safety, and develop it into a useful technology with a wide range of applications. With algae biomass, we are able to more effectively target and utilize algae’s myriad of benefits, without being limited by strain specificity or tricky extraction processes.


Harvesting the Algae


During the harvesting process, pond water burdened with algae bloom is pumped into a mobile harvester unit. Once inside the unit, the pond water is mixed with a water industry standard chemical coagulant to help the algae clump together in larger masses called flocs. Air bubbles push the flocs to the surface, where they are then skimmed off into a collection tank. The water is filtered and safely released back into the pond, protecting fish and other aquatic life from being harmed during the process. A pump truck collects the algae mass (now called a slurry) from the harvester unit, and delivers it to a facility where it is dewatered and dried via a solar drying process. Once sufficiently dried, the algae biomass is ready for polymerization into pellets before it is eventually expanded into a flexible foam with additional foaming compounds.


Designing a Product for the Greater Good


Depending upon the desired foam characteristics, BLOOM foams contain anywhere between 15–60% GMO-free algae biomass. Thanks to the high protein content in the biomass, we can replace a significant portion of the conventional polymers, and synthetic and petrochemical ingredients traditionally used to create foam. The foam’s production process can best be described through a process in which the algae biomass denatures into the polymer chain of a desired carrier resin (ethylene vinyl acetate, for example) and becomes one in the polymer chain. In doing so, a new hybrid bio-foam is created with beneficial performance properties and greatly reduced environmental impacts compared to conventional foam. We are currently evaluating production methods of producing recyclable foams and fully biodegradable foams; this is an ongoing area of development.


One very interesting feature of algae is its natural antimicrobial properties. Recently, the team at BLOOM Foam developed a line of antimicrobial foams, in which the antimicrobial is solely derived from algae. After many independent laboratory trials, the algae-derived antimicrobials were proven to be 99.99% effective at inhibiting the growth of odor-causing bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (a gram positive pathogen) in the finished or treated article. What’s more, additional testing also yielded over 99% effectiveness at inhibiting the growth of E.Coli (a gram negative pathogen) in the finished or treated article. Our company is currently seeking broad global patent protection for this remarkable invention, and as such, the details of this continued area of development will be kept as proprietary for now.


Another key feature of BLOOM foams is the hypoallergenic certification. Our company commissioned an independent third-party clinical trial with over 200 participants between the ages of 18 and 70. The results of that trial concluded that BLOOM foam “did not demonstrate a potential for eliciting dermal irritation or sensitization.” This finding is important, as it ensures the broadest possible material adoption for BLOOM foam in many fields of use, from footwear to medical gear and beyond. By contrast, the proteins in most natural rubber latex foams trigger Type-1allergic reactions that limit their fields of use.



BLOOM Stock Colors


BLOOM foam is currently available in eight stock colors. Our pigments are created using standard industry colorants (for now). We are evaluating bio-derived pigments and testing them against UV degradation, colorfastness, and wear resistance. Nearly all commercial applications of BLOOM foams require the utmost in performance. That is, the foam must perform to every standard of conventional petrochemical and synthetic foams for it to be a viable alternative. Our inventor and co-founder, Rob Falken, is currently working on a chemical and solvent-free method to safely extract the algae pigment (chlorophyll) from the foam’s feedstock to produce a wider range of custom colors, and a pure white alternative. As an environmentally-minded biotech company, it is very important to us that every phase of our production process—from harvesting the algae to manufacturing our foam—mitigates environmental impacts as much as possible. We are constantly working to maximize the benefits of our products and technology.


Life Cycle Analysis of BLOOM Foam


BLOOM Foam has commissioned a full third-party Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by the globally recognized organization Earthshift. The comparative analysis results of the LCA determined that BLOOM Foam reduced impacts in all major environmental categories (ecosystem, resources, cumulative energy, climate change, and water) by 20-41%.


Nature has proven to be a powerful ally in helping to advance some of today’s most exciting technologies. As forward-thinking companies begin to recognize the value of working with nature, rather than against it, we begin to shape a more sustainable future that helps protect our natural environment, and enriches lives for generations to come.



BLOOM Holdings, LLC is a joint venture between Algix, LLC—the world’s leading algae biomass harvester—and Effekt, LLC, an environmentally-minded product and material development company.


BLOOM exists to offer a more sustainable solution to the synthetic and petrochemical foams prevalent in today’s market.




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Sprucing Up Biofuel with Renewable Antioxidants

February 5, 2016 | Phys Org

Scientists in the UK have used antioxidants isolated from spruce woodchips to stabilise biodiesel.


"Exploding" Sugar Beet Cells for Faster Fermentation

February 4, 2016 | Phys Org

Sugar beet is an interesting raw material in the biobased economy as the sugars it contains can easily be fermented into valuable molecules.


Lithium Battery Catalyst Found to Harm Key Soil Microorganism

February 4, 2016 | Phys Org

The material at the heart of the lithium ion batteries that power electric vehicles, laptop computers and smartphones has been shown to impair a key soil bacterium, according to new research published online in the journal Chemistry of Materials.


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The University Professors Who are at the Heads of the 2015 Class

February 4, 2016 | Maclean’s

Get out your catalogues and try to nab a course with one of the best university teachers in the country.


The Scientists Harvesting Energy from Humans to Power Our Wearables

February 4, 2016 | The Guardian

An MIT lab has produced a device the size of a stamp that harvests energy from bending movements. Commercializing it could be a breakthrough for wearables.


Boost for Non-Animal Toxicology Testing

February 3, 2016 | Chemistry World

US researchers have taken a step forward in a large-scale collaborative effort to develop ways of assessing compounds’ toxicity without relying on laborious, expensive and ethically contentious animal experiments.


Why Materials Will Make or Break the Circular Economy

February 3, 2016 | Green Biz

For sporting goods giant Adidas, a foray into the world of upcycled goods started with a reality TV show. On an episode of "Whale Wars," where marine avengers aboard a ship called the Sea Shepard chase down illegal fishing boats, the crew found themselves with tons and tons of contraband gillnets.


More Biobased Plastics for Bottles: Dupont announces PTF

February 2, 2016 | Biobased Press

Coca-Cola and Danone have not yet decided on biobased plastics for their bottles (PET or PEF), but DuPont announces another competitor: PTF.


Olive Oil Untangles Plastic

February 2, 2016 | Student Science

Chefs often add olive oil to spaghetti to aid the cooking process and improve flavor. Now a study finds that olive oil and other vegetable oils can also help make one type of plastic into super-strong fibers. Those fibers are ideal for making products such as bulletproof fabrics or ropes that anchor offshore oil rigs.


Is Finland's Neste the World's First 21st Century Oil Company?

February 2, 2016 | ChEnected

In an era of hyper-branding, normally whenever a corporation changes its name and logo — altering the image countless commercials have indelibly burned into consumer psyches — it's usually a Hail Mary pass thrown by desperate management trying to dodge a PR disaster.


Barriers to Pollution Prevention

February 1, 2016 | C&EN

Environment: Many industrial facilities report they are unaware of greener chemicals or alternative technology.


The Race for the 100% Biobased Plastic Bottle

February 1, 2016 | Biofuels Digest

In Switzerland, AVA Biochem revealed that it is expanding its product portfolio to include platform chemical FDCA (2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid)— and that’s a pathway to a molecule called PEF that’s a potential bio-based replacement for PET used to make clear plastic bottles for soft drinks.


Introducing the World's First Zero Isocyanate Industrial and Commercial Coating

February 1, 2016 | Spray Foam

Industrial Finishes & Systems has entered into a definitive exclusive national distribution agreement with Hybrid Coating Technologies (HCT) for several of HCT’s coating formulations.


‘Green Chemistry is Need of the Hour'

January 30, 2016 | The Times of India

"Clean and green chemistry is need of the hour and scientists across the country should take initiative in research for it," exhorted Prof PD Yadav, vice chancellor of the Institute of Chemical Technology.


UoN Awarded ‘World’s Greenest University Campus’ Title

January 30, 2016 | IMPACT

The University of Nottingham has been awarded the title of the most environmentally-friendly campus in the world for the fourth time.




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Contributed by Jaime Conway, President of Northeastern University’s Student Affiliates of the American Chemical Society, Northeastern University


Our student chapter is one that focuses heavily on professional development, campus presence, community service, and, very importantly, green chemistry. I clearly remember when I was introduced to green chemistry.


My second year here, representatives from Gordon College came to speak about their involvement with the initiative. They introduced the Twelve Principles, and they illustrated how they were implemented in the classroom. I then found out that Northeastern University had just signed the pledge for the green chemistry initiative. All of this helped establish my interest, but I lacked the context to implement the principles in my own life.


This context came along with the practice of spreading knowledge about green chemistry. I got more involved in our student chapter by joining the Executive Board.  I began to help plan demos and events that highlighted green chemistry, a continued focus of the group. With a more hands-on approach, I was properly able to explain and inform my community of its importance.



NUSAACS has many different ways to get the word out about green chemistry on our campus. An annual event is our celebration of Earth Day. General awareness of Earth Day is great to facilitate discussions about going green, but is not specifically chemistry related. In order to use the general awareness of our campus to our advantage, we host an Earth Day event where fellow students plant seeds in a small pot to bring home with them with one condition: they watch our green chemistry demo. These demos have included a blackberry solar cell and a demo of benign and effective substitutes to hazardous chlorinated bleach products that anyone can use. Our student chapter has been featured in our university’s news for our efforts with green chemistry and Earth Day’s emphasis on general sustainability.


We also try to incorporate green chemistry at our weekly meetings. NUSAACS members get involved by performing demos and learning to speak more technically about the Twelve Principles. An example of a demo is using cabbage water as a natural pH indicator to evaluate popular household cleaners. The principles were displayed in how effective red cabbage was as a pH indicator. Using benign chemicals such as this is entirely as effective as a standard lab indicator, yet is not widely used due to convenience and lack of an initiative. This dynamic demo was a great way to discuss the many aspects of Green Chemistry and how we can apply it not only as chemists, but also as humans in our everyday lives.


Lastly, NUSAACS believes that it is important to spread the word to other chemists from other schools as much as possible. This year, NUSAACS hosted a joint student chapter meeting attended by two other Boston ACS chapters. Students from Suffolk University and UMass Lowell listened to our guest speaker, Dr. John Warner from the Warner Babcock Institute for Green Chemistry. As one of the pioneers of green chemistry and the creator of the premier company in the field, Warner captivated the audience with his presentation on his life, his career, his creation of the institute, and his goals moving forward. He spoke in detail about the issue is not the existence of harmful compounds but the fact that chemists are not taught to consider and avoid these chemicals. His talk was extremely informative and was even more powerful coming from someone so passionate about the cause.


Our student chapter tries to greatly emphasize green chemistry. We have implemented 2-3 events each year in an attempt to be recognized with a Green Chapter Award, and it has since grown into a passion for our members. This year, we decided to try some new events in order to further the discussion. One idea that we are excited to accomplish is a bulletin board in our chemistry building that will display the Twelve Principles along with some photos of different demos and events that we have held throughout the years. This will help us reach students taking chemistry classes that may not be studying it as their major. Another idea of ours is a journal club, where members will read articles, discuss them in detail, and challenge themselves to find new or different ways to do the experiments that would make the chemistry greener.  We really feel as though this would be good practice to hone our skills for when we enter our future research and careers. Lastly, while they may not count as green chemistry events, there are many other great ways to practice general sustainability, such as by signing your school’s pledge to use reusable water bottles, cutting down on general waste of your chapter, volunteering at museums to teach children about the importance of the environment, and more.


As your chapter moves forward with green chemistry, ACS has many resources that are extremely useful. They have held “Greening Your ACS Student Chapters Webinars” where many of your questions can be answered. They also have a myriad of general and demo ideas on their website that can inspire some events within your chapter. Beyond Benign, a foundation that focuses on green chemistry education and outreach, also has many resources for those passionate for the initiative. Lastly, feel free to reach out to our chapter at with any questions or even just to say hello. We love to collaborate with other chapters!




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Chemists Use Biocompatible Method to Synthesize Titania

January 29, 2016 | MEHR News Academy

Iranian and Iraqi researchers studied the possibility of the application of herbal extracts to synthesize titanium dioxide nanoparticles, INIC reports.


Will Green/Sustainable Chemistry Provisions Survive Final TSCA Reform?

January 28, 2016 | JD Supra Business Adviser

There is still no definitive answer as to whether the green/sustainable chemistry provisions in S. 697, the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, will survive the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives conference committee process as lawmakers confer and prepare the final compromise legislation of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) reform bill.


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Military Success, Rare Metals and the Periodic Table

January 28, 2016 | Investor Intel

How the Military came to Love Rare Earth and Other Technology Metals.


Marketers: Stop Selling 'Green,' Start Selling Products That Match Our Values

January 28, 2016 | Sustainable Brands

Sustainable Brands recently referenced a study from Ohio State University that shows that “not only do many consumers not want to put much effort toward finding out whether our purchases were produced ethically (which is not exactly news), they have a way of looking down on those who do.”


Biomaterials firm Metabolix to Move HQ to Woburn from Cambridge

January 27, 2016 | Boston Business Journal

A Cambridge company that develops biomaterials as environmentally-friendly alternatives to plastics is moving its headquarters to Woburn this year, and plans to close a Lowell site next year.


Harvesting Hydrogen from Tough Biomass

January 26, 2016 | Chemistry World

US-based scientists have come up with a sustainable way to harvest hydrogen fuel from biomass. Their new electrolytic approach can even release hydrogen from obstinate molecules like lignin and cellulose.


New Bioplastic Mashup Spells Doom for Petrochemical Industry

January 25, 2016 | Clean Technica

Two global industry giants, DuPont and Archer Daniels Midland, have just announced a new “breakthrough” process for producing a high performance, 100% biodegradable bioplastic building block.


All for Less Carbon

January 22, 2016 | Nature Matters

The development and implementation of low-carbon and carbon-free technologies will be essential to limit the global temperature rise well below 2 °C from pre-industrial levels.




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Green Chemistry Hindered by Lack of Toxicology Training

January 21, 2016 | Chemistry World

Pioneers in green chemistry are warning that the development of new environmentally friendly, non-toxic chemicals is being hampered by a lack of training in toxicology and environmental mechanisms in US chemistry degree courses.



Trending: Bio-Based Materials Breakthroughs Thanks to Seashells, Fructose

January 20, 2016 | Sustainable Brands

Seashells are being researched for their impressive mechanical properties.


Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Go Green

January 20, 2016 | PharmTech

Pharmaceutical companies are increasingly making public commitments to sustainability goals and investing in "green" chemistry and the equipment and manufacturing practices needed to meet these goals.


Snow Soaks Up Toxic Pollutants in the Air, Study Shows

January 19, 2016 | Huffpost Green

You probably don't want your kids eating snow if you live in an urban area.


A Gold-Based Compound Will Help Clean Toxic Metals Released by China's Vast Polyvinyl Chloride Industry

January 15, 2016 | Scientific American

A gold-based catalyst over 30 years in the making is set to help fight the harm China’s polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic industry is causing the country’s environment.


Building Material Recycling – A Great Gain for the Environment

January 15, 2016 | PhysOrg

Constructivate's aim is to increase the recycling of Sweden's second largest source of waste, building and demolition materials. Recycled concrete can become a great gain for the environment.




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Contributed by Stefan Pastine, Co-founder & CTO, Connora Technologies


Waste poses significant environmental and societal challenges all over the world. While some of the waste generated each year can be recycled or repurposed into new products, some materials are not currently recyclable. Consider plastics, which comprise 12% of waste generation in the U.S.  The perception of plastic by the typical citizen is most likely that of thermoplastics, which is encountered in everyday life in the form out packaging, bottles, and casing materials, toys, etc. Little waste is created in the manufacturing of such consumer products because most common thermoplastics are recyclable, so for economic reasons, any manufacturing waste will be fed back into production.  It is rather unfortunate that so many of these products, post-consumer, find their way into the environment.



There is a second category of high performance structural plastic called thermosetting plastics (or thermosets). While thermoplastics can be melted down from a solid and reshaped (thus recycled), thermosets are defined by an irreversible setting process.  They are composed from two different liquid materials, a resin and a curing agent, which harden when mixed and heated. Once “set”, thermoset materials, and products derived therefrom, cannot be melted and recycled as thermoplastics can. They can only be removed from the environment via incineration.  The ordinary consumer is likely unaware about the fact that there still remains a non-recyclable class of plastic. This is understandable considering that, historically, thermosets have mainly been used for adhesive and coating applications. This is changing. Thermosets, such as epoxy, are now commonly used as the plastic matrix in performance composites, also known as fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs). Composites have the lightweight advantages of a plastic and the extra strength generated from the fiber reinforcement.  As the cost of carbon fiber has dropped substantially, the prevalence of composites has increased dramatically. This is driven primarily by the push for implementation of lighter-weight alternatives to traditional structural materials such as steel and aluminum. Composites are now found in many familiar engineering applications, including automotive and aviation parts, wind turbine blades, structural supports in buildings, and high performance sporting equipment.


Thermoset composites are not recyclable because thermoset plastics were never designed to be recyclable in the first place. As the composite market continues to grow, the use of non-recyclable thermosets places the industry in a juxtaposition. On one hand, carbon composites are essential for meeting energy efficiency goals and CAFE standards in the transportation industry, and on the other hand the materials required to make these products are not recyclable. While attention could clearly be focused on the fact that end-of-life products are not recyclable, the waste generated by composite OEMs is increasingly becoming both an environmental and economic burden.


The problem is perhaps best illustrated by Boeing’s newest commercial jet model, the 787 Dreamliner. The Dreamliner represents a major transition in how Boeing constructs airplanes. Jet bodies have historically been constructed from metal, but the 787 is composed of 50% composite materials by weight, including a one-piece composite fuselage. The use of composites gives the Dreamliner revolutionary fuel efficiency, a key milestone toward reduction of in CO2 emission. At the same time, Boeing’s manufacturing activities now produce large quantities of composite waste, estimated to be in the millions of lbs.  Throughout the entire industry, between 10-30% of composite input raw materials in (i.e. thermoset + fiber) typically gets wasted during composite manufacturing. Unlike thermoplastic, thermoset plastic waste can not be re-integrated back into production. The lost economic value from the landfilling of thermoset composite waste is now in the hundreds of millions.  If just one car company switched from metals to composites, this number would be in the billions. One way or another, the lost material value and the disposal fees get passed on to the consumer and the wasted resources get passed on to the environment.


Connora Technologies (Hayward, CA) is an advanced materials startup solving the thermoset recycling problem for the industry by reengineering thermoset plastics using smart chemistry. Connora is in the process of commercializing a series of high performance epoxy curing agents, called Recyclamines®, enabling the manufacture of inherently recyclable thermoset composites. Recyclamine® is a drop-in replacement for standard thermoset composite manufacturing processes. This will enable OEMs to meet shifting regulatory end-of-life compliance, while also moving them toward “zero-landfill” operations via the recycle of manufacturing waste. Total composite recycling is achieved using a specific chemical recycling process, whereby the fibers and thermoset can be separated, recovered, and reused. Key to Connora’s technology is the transformation of the thermoset into its thermoplastic counterpart. The recycled fibers maintain virgin quality and the reclaimed thermoplastic has unique performance characteristics, with mechanical properties similar to nylon and adhesive properties that parallel epoxy thermosets.


Connora has been engaged in development projects with leading brands and OEMs to prove that for the first time, the cradle-to-cradle life cycle is possible for thermoset products. For example, Recyclamine Technology enables complex products like skis and snowboards to be recyclable. All of the individual components used in product manufacturing can be recovered end-of-life through the thermoset recycling process (Figure 2).  Importantly, all of the thermoset plastic wasted in the manufacturing process (commonly referred to as “flashing” in the ski & snowboard industry)  can be recycled into an injection molding grade thermoplastic and used to make another plastic product such as a ski binding (Figure 2).


The wide-scale adoption of composites for automotive applications will be contingent on effective cost-reduction strategies. The advent of High Pressure Resin Transfer Molding [HP-RTM] has helped move the thermoset composite industry towards this goal, enabling cycle times of minutes. This advanced processing technology has been integral to the development of BMW’s I-Series, which is the first serial production carbon-fiber car. However, the cost of composites remains artificially high due to the fact that thermosets are not recyclable.  Figure 3 shows fully recyclable carbon fiber panels made using HP-RTM made with Recyclamine® Technology. The carbon fiber lay-up remains fully intact and can be reused again to make another composite panels. Such efficient recycling and reintegration of composite waste can further reduce the cost of composites by 2.5-7.5%, depending on the amount of manufacturing waste generated.


While research and development on new molecules has all but stopped in large chemical companies, Connora Technologies was founded on the premise that smart molecules are key for the development of materials with fundamentally new performance.  As Recyclamine Technology begins to take foot in the composite industry, Connora will look to transpose the same concept that drives thermoset recycling into other industries: Reverse, Remove, Release….Re-imagine.




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Contributed by Dr. Keying Ding and Dr. Gary White, faculty advisors and Club President Tim Chitpanya, Middle Tennessee State University


Our chapter’s interest in green chemistry began in the fall of 2006 with a seminar at a club meeting.  In his presentation “Green Chemistry: Bringing the Real World into the Chemistry Labs” Dr. Gautam Bhattacharyya from Clemson University introduced us to the principles of green chemistry. After the seminar he led a workshop where we learned about the activities in which we could participate that would give us Green Chemistry Chapter status. Since that time our green student chapter activities have included green chemistry demonstrations, educating the public using different forms of media and inviting outside speakers to give seminars.


The source for one of our chemical demonstrations "The Greening of the Blue Bottle" appeared in an article in the Journal of Chemical Education.  We brought this demonstration to a local middle school to illustrate how waste could be minimized in a chemical demonstration.


At the 2011 annual homecoming parade the club assembled a golf cart float with a green chemistry theme. Club members on the float distributed flyers which described the 12 Principles of Green Chemistry.


At a club meeting in March 2015, Dr. Keying Ding, one of our faculty advisors presented a green chemistry demonstration that used super critical CO2 to extract D-Limonene from citrus fruits. By creating a pressurized environment, the D-Limonene was separated from the rest of the fruit and collected into the bottom of the test tube. Students learned that this same method can be used as a more environmentally friendly solvent for dry cleaning as compared to more traditional solvents such as hydrocarbons.


On Earth Day 2015, a green chemistry poster was set up in the main atrium of our new Science Building. It included information on bio-renewable and bio-degradable polymers that can be used in everyday items. The students also presented some bio-renewable plastic ware made from polylactic acid (PLA). Members talked to those who were interested and aimed to spread awareness about these new products. By spreading awareness of these biodegradable products, people become more aware of the impact they have when they dispose of items that do not decompose.



This year the Chemistry club invited Dr. Chris Jones from Georgia Tech as the 19th Annual Golden Goggles guest speaker. The “Golden Goggles” lecture has become one of our club’s signature events. Well-known speakers, usually from higher education, share timely topics; past speakers have discussed therapeutic cloning, herbal remedies and green chemistry. We invited Dr. Jones to share his great knowledge on green chemistry and technology development for CO2 (carbon dioxide) separation and conversion. This event was open to the local ACS section and community.


There are several faculty members at MTSU chemistry department being actively involved in green chemistry research. Such involvement indeed broadens up their research and funding opportunities. For example, Dr. Ding’s group is working on development of earth abundant metal catalysts for green organic transformations. As a chemistry club co-advisor, she has been encouraging students to participate in green chemistry outreach and research activities. She’s been successful on getting several internal sustainable campus fee funds and a NSF grant which supports her green chemistry activities. One chemistry club student (Xyan Aguilar) is working in Ding’s group on one of these projects.


We strongly agree that student chapter’s activities can encourage the incorporation of green chemistry into the curriculum. Dr. Ding is planning to open a new green chemistry course in the near future to undergraduate students. We will not only teach green chemistry principles, but also encourage students to participate in outreach and research activities.




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Green Nano: Positive environmental effects through the use of nanotechnology

January 15, 2016 | Nano Werk

The green nano design principles developed by the German NanoCommission constitute an attempt to establish consensus-based guidelines for environmentally friendly and sustainable production.

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Young Researcher Wins Prestigious Grant for Safe Chemical Research

January 13, 2016 | The GW Hatchet

Adelina Voutchkova-Kostal, an assistant professor of chemistry, is the recipient of the prestigious National Science Foundation CAREER grant.


Making Pharma Manufacturing More Sustainable

January 13, 2016 | PharmTech

Pharmaceutical companies are increasingly making public commitments to sustainability goals and investing in the "green" chemistry, equipment, and manufacturing practices needed to meet these goals.


Cradle to Cradle Design Challenge Winners Provide Practical Everyday Solutions

January 13, 2016 | Sustainable Brands

The Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute and Autodesk, the hosts of the competition, awarded a $2000 cash prize to the winners in the four categories: Best Student Project, Best Professional Project, Best Use of the Autodesk Fusion 360 Tool, and Best Use of Aluminum.


American Chemical Society Releases 2016 Advocacy Agenda

January 13, 2016 | ACS Office of Public Affairs

Among these critical measures that ACS expects will pass this session of Congress is The Sustainable Chemistry Research and Development Act.


A Rechargeable Calcium-Ion Battery

January 12, 2016 | C&EN

Materials: Will calcium knock lithium off its perch?


Learning Through a Portfolio of Carbon Capture and Storage Demonstration Projects

January 11, 2016 |

Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is considered by many to be an essential route to meet climate mitigation targets in the power and industrial sectors.


These Companies are Figuring out How to Reduce the Toxics in Electronics

January 11, 2016 | Ensia

As global consumption of cellphones and other devices soars, industry searches for ways to decrease the threat of chemical components to people and the environment.


E Pluribus, Unum: LanzaTech, Global Bioenergies demonstrate the Biotechnology App Store

January 10, 2016 | Biofuels Digest

As Global Bioenergies, LanzaTech tighten isobutene partnership, the era of “swap-in, swap out” biorefining microbes comes clearer, closer.


What You Need to Know About Microbeads, the Banned Bath Product Ingredients

January 9. 2016 | Forbes

President Obama has signed into law the Microbead-Free Waters Act of 2015, which bans microbeads, a common ingredient in personal care products.


Method's Saskia van Gendt on Honing Operations

January 8, 2016 | GreenBiz

Method is setting the standard for clean manufacturing. On Oct. 2, Bard MBA in Sustainability spoke with Saskia van Gendt, greenskeeping manager for Method Home




“The Nexus Blog” is a sister publication of “The Nexus” newsletter. To sign up for the newsletter, please email, or if you have an ACS ID, login to your email preferences and select “The Nexus” to subscribe.


To read other posts, go to Green Chemistry: The Nexus Blog home.

A call to action for innovation in CO2 conversion and ocean discovery


Contributed by Paul Bunje & Marcius Extavour, XPRIZE


The Paris climate agreement is a North Star pointing scientists and engineers towards the technological breakthroughs needed to usher in a more sustainable era. The opportunity to develop green chemistry solutions and apply them to real problems at scale has never been greater.


We at XPRIZE are seeking to help spur these new technologies by launching incentive prize competitions that invite innovators from around the world to tackle some of humanity’s greatest challenges. We recently launched two new prizes that seek to address two of the most pressing: climate change and understanding the world’s oceans. Critically, we are seeking bright innovators from chemistry, materials science, chemical engineering, and beyond to come and showcase radical new solutions that can help solve these Grand Challenges.


In September 2015, XPRIZE launched the NRG COSIA Carbon XPRIZE. The Carbon XPRIZE is a US$20 million global competition to incentivize breakthroughs in the conversion of CO2 into useful and valuable products.


The concept of CO2 conversion is not new. CO2 has been used to produce methanol and urea since World War II. Current production of these two chemicals alone from CO2 conversion consumes 120 Mt of CO2 annually [Aresta 2013]. Estimates for the total amount of CO2 which could be converted using today’s technologies and products has been conservatively estimated at 300 Mt, with accompanying avoided emissions of roughly 1 Gt/yr [Aresta 2013]. This represents around 5% of total global CO2 emissions, which are 36 Gt/yr and rising [IEA 2014].


CO2 conversion alone may not solve the CO2 problem, but it is a promising, underutilized tool poised for growth and an important bridge to a low-carbon economy. New breakthroughs in CO2 conversion chemistries could increase this potential dramatically. The chance to demonstrate one breakthrough could show that myriad other technologies built on green chemistry are also poised for increased investment and deployment.


Why are we confident about an impending suite of technological breakthroughs? Well, the conventional wisdom has been that CO2 conversion is too expensive and energy intensive to thrive in markets dominated by fossil hydrocarbon feedstocks. But an emerging set of technologies and policies alongside a new business climate may shift the energetics and cost curves to the point where CO2 conversion could be poised for a radical leap forward.


This is happening in several specific ways:


  • New CO2 capture and conversion chemistries are increasing overall process efficiencies through new catalysts, materials, and process designs. [Lim 2015, Scott 2015]
  • Deployment of low-carbon electricity generation is accelerating, especially renewables. CO2 conversion processes powered by low-carbon electricity could achieve net CO2 emissions reductions. [Ren21 2015, Aresta 2013]
  • Growing government and business investment in de-carbonization and the prospect of carbon pricing is creating new market opportunities for low-carbon technologies, including CO2 conversion. [Armstrong 2015, IEA 2014]


In the Carbon XPRIZE, the winning team will convert the most CO2 into products with the highest net value. Rewarding high value products will encourage teams, investors, policy makers, and the public to reimagine the business opportunity of CO2 conversion. A sustainable business based on CO2 conversion could leverage business innovation to tackle the CO2 problem and spur broader investment in green chemistry.


Just this December, XPRIZE launched another prize with big ambitions. The Shell Ocean Discovery XPRIZE is a $7 million competition challenging teams from around the world to build advanced deep-sea underwater robots that will provide safe access to the tough environment 4 km below the surface at the ocean floor, paving the way for autonomous, fast, and high-resolution ocean exploration. The success of this prize will result in technologies with which we can fully explore and map the ocean floor, uncovering our planet’s greatest wonder and allowing us to sustain and protect our deep-sea resources. We are also asking teams to advance our ability to see what is down there by producing high-resolution images of biological, geological, and archeological features.


Embedded in this competition is a $1 million bonus prize from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for technologies that can detect underwater chemical or biological signals and trace them to their source. Here again is an amazing opportunity to unlock the science and technology of green chemistry in the deep ocean. Much of the challenge of deep-sea exploration hinges on the difficulty of navigating and communicating in a dark and extreme environment. Novel materials will be critical to both vehicle function at great depth and—perhaps more impressively—enabling breakthroughs in sensing and autonomous “sniffing” of the source of particular chemical signatures.


Significant advances have been made in underwater vehicle technology and autonomous navigation. However, the speed and duration of these vehicles is severely limited due to constraints on power consumption and the materials used. Application of advanced materials from adjacent fields opens new possibilities for improving the performance and sensing capabilities of deep-sea exploration. Deploying materials that enable environmentally safe exploration is critical because ocean ecosystems are so sensitive and vital. And as a criterion for this prize, green chemistry has a huge role to play in driving breakthroughs in underwater exploration and discovery.


Perhaps the most exciting part of both the Carbon XPRIZE and Ocean Discovery XPRIZE is the unknown science, technology, innovation that could be unleashed. What new CO2 conversion chemistries might emerge? What new species might be uncovered in the depths of the unexplored oceans? What new horizons for green chemistry applications will emerge?


Dr. Paul Bunje is Principal and Senior Scientist at XPRIZE Foundation, where he leads Energy & Environment prizes. Bunje is a global thought leader in bringing innovation to solve environmental grand challenges. This work includes leading the US $20M NRG COSIA Carbon XPRIZE and XPRIZE’s Ocean Initiative.


Dr. Marcius Extavour is Director of Technical Operations for the US $20M NRG COSIA Carbon XPRIZE with XPRIZE Foundation’s Energy & Environment group.




M. Aresta, A. Dibenedetto, and A. Angelini.  The changing paradigm in CO2 utilization. J. CO2 Utilization 3–4, 65 (2013).


IEA Energy Technology Perspectives. (2014). Harnessing Electricity’s Potential. Paris: IEA Publications. ISBN 978-92-64-20800-1, OECD/IEA.


X. Lim, How to Make the Most of Carbon Dioxide, Nature 526, 628 (2015).


A. Scott, Learning to Love CO2, Chemical & Engineering News 93-45, 10 (2015). b9b70ee6edf54c5c3b584


Ren21’s Renewables Global Status Report (2015)


K. Armstrong and P. Styring, Assessing the potential for utilization and storage strategies for post-combustion CO2 emissions reduction, Frontiers in Energy Research 3, 1 (2015).




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Contributed by Freya Burton, Director of Communications, LanzaTech


Today there is an abundance of carbon in all the wrong places. We currently recycle metals, plastics and paper. So why not recycle carbon?


Emerging technologies and continued innovation hold the promise of real solutions which enable a reduction in our utilization of “new carbon” while we continue to meet growing global energy demand.  Imagine a world where waste carbon is captured and recycled into new products, such as plastics for building materials, toys, synthetic fibers; carbon may even replace the oil-derived nylon in yoga pants! Imagine you can choose the products you use in your daily life based on where the carbon in them has come from. Would you choose material recently taken from the ground (“new carbon”)? Or a “carbon smart” product made from recycled carbon?  Our current carbon dilemma is a global opportunity; carbon recycling will change our world.


LanzaTech’s innovative green chemistry pathway is challenging how the world thinks about waste carbon—it is treated as an opportunity instead of a liability. The gas-to-liquid platform uses proprietary microbes to ferment carbon-rich waste gases, such as those from industrial flue stacks, producing liquid fuels such as ethanol and chemicals such as 2,3 butanediol as they grow. This process can be likened to brewing, but instead of sugars and yeast we use waste gases and microbes. Instead of beer, we produce ethanol and chemicals. This is not a lab curiosity. The technology has been demonstrated capturing and recycling steel mill off-gases at scale in China with Shougang Corporation and in Taiwan with China Steel.  The first commercial units are under construction in Belgium with the world’s largest steel maker, ArcelorMittal.

circular slide.jpg


The LanzaTech microbe is a naturally-occurring organism in the family of acetogens, or gas-fermenting organisms. The microbes are hypothesized to be one of the oldest on earth, using gases from hydrothermal vents to grow.  LanzaTech’s founder, Sean Simpson, made a link between the gases from hydrothermal vents to those produced from industries today. Biomimicry has led to the development of microbes that are tolerant to high levels of toxicity; avoiding expensive conditioning, an economic factor historically stalling gas fermentation technologies.


The design and control of biological conversion processes offer different and distinct advantages for the chemical industry. Biology is capable of catalysis with high specificity and for the production of highly oxygenated products – we should expect to be able to produce and procure molecules that we’ve never had access to before. Then we can ask the question, not what molecules are available, but what is the best molecule or combination for a particular application? Secondly, biological conversion processes operate at a narrow range of temperatures and pressures. This means one process could be swapped out for another, using the exact same hardware, when the markets and prices change. A simple example of this is that a facility that produces ethanol could exchange the biological catalyst to one that produces isopropanol, and it could use the same conversion and separation equipment. Decisions around an asset no longer need to project the 20-year price of a particular molecule. When fully realized, and when combined with the revolution in information, this will serve to stabilize commodity markets and improve their efficiency.


Waste gas is a highly attractive resource for fuel and chemicals production due to its low value and high annual volumetric production. LanzaTech is focused on reusing gas streams rich in carbon monoxide (CO) that are common by-products of established manufacturing processes. Often these gases cannot be utilized efficiently and are therefore wasted. The conversion of CO rich gases through synthetic chemical pathways, for example Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis, requires that H2 be available in the synthesis gas. This is not always the case in waste industrial gases. To overcome this challenge, LanzaTech’s microbes have a highly efficient biological water-gas shift reaction, compensating for any deficit of H2 in the input gas stream by catalyzing the release of H2 from water using the energy in CO.


LanzaTech_BaoSteel Demo Plant-Shanghai.jpg

In addition, current chemical production methods involve commodity raw materials (sugars, petroleum, natural gas) whose value can change dramatically over short periods of time. A gas stream cannot be easily traded and therefore the utilization of a gas stream as a feedstock will result in decoupling the production of commodity chemicals from commodity feedstocks. This means the fluctuations in the cost of raw materials and therefore chemical intermediates will be dampened substantially by introducing chemicals produced from waste gas streams. This will have a game-changing impact on the chemical industry and it's supply chain - a trillion dollar industry shifting the way it thinks about commodity sourcing and supply.  Innovation in green chemistry holds the key to our energy future and offers significant solutions to a growing number of societal, environmental and economic challenges. New sustainable technologies are already today changing how we look at energy and food production, chemical manufacture and resource efficiency.


"Consider the cherry tree," Michael Braungart and William McDonough wrote in "Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things". "A cherry tree produces thousands of blossoms which create fruit for birds, humans and other animals in an effort to grow one tree. The blossoms and fruit that fall to the ground aren’t waste, they are food for other systems and processes that nourish the tree and soil. It’s a question of design and eco-effectiveness, a question we should be addressing in our approach to life and manufacturing."


Carbon recycling does just that. Waste should not be allowed to exist. We have the tools and the innovations at our disposal to be resource efficient and to capture, reuse or recycle waste streams, much like a cherry tree will use the nutrients from its fallen leaves and blossoms as a resource for further growth. We envisage a carbon smart future where a steel mill would be able to produce the steel to make a car and then use the wastes from that process to make the fuel. But why stop there? The chemical derivatives would be used to produce the interior plastic moldings, the seating foam, the structural adhesives, the exterior coatings and paints and the synthetic rubber for that same car!


That is only a glimpse at a carbonsmart future. Innovations in green chemistry will allow us to realize this vision.




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To read other posts, go to Green Chemistry: The Nexus Blog home.

BioAmber, Reverdia sign a non-assert agreement

January 8, 2016 | Biomass Magazine

Reverdia has signed a non-assert agreement concerning its Biosuccinium technology with BioAmber Inc.


World's First Facility for Producing Bioplastic from Biodiesel Co-product to be Realized in Italy

January 8, 2016 | Plastemart

An agreement signed today by Bio-on and S.E.C.I. S.p.A. part of Gruppo Industriale Maccaferri holding will see Italy's and world's first facility for the production of PHAs bioplastic from biodiesel production co-products, namely glycerol.


Chemical Cascades in Water for the Synthesis of Functionalized Aromatics from Furfurals

January 7, 2016 | Green Chemistry

One-pot synthetic routes from furfurals to polysubstituted aromatic compounds have been developed in water, without the need for any organic solvents.


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Eugene and San Francisco Firms Reach Deal to Sell Less-toxic Polyurethane

January 7, 2016 | The Register-Guard

Industrial Finishes & Systems of Eugene has become the exclusive distributor of a new, environmentally friendly polyurethane.


DOE to Issue FOAs on Algae Biomass, Bioproducts

January 6, 2016 | Biomass Magazine

In recent weeks, the U.S. Department of Energy has announced plans to issue funding opportunity announcements (FOAs) to support the development of biobased hydrocarbon fuels and algae biomass.


Scientists Develop Hydrogen 'Nano Reactor' by Hiding Bacteria Genes Inside a Virus Shell

January 5, 2016 | Science Alert

Researchers in the US have developed a virus-like biomaterial that catalyzes the formation of hydrogen inexpensively and cleanly, which could lead to new environmentally friendly ways of producing biofuel.


Green Chemistry Campus Tenants Move Forward with Bio-Aromatics Research

January 5, 2016 | Green Chemistry

Campus Biorizon partner Green Chemistry Campus, together with partners Chemelot Institute for Science & Technology (InSciTe) and Brightlands Chemelot Campus was granted a European and provincial contribution to organize, coordinate and scale up the research in the field of bio-aromatics in Southern Netherlands. Campus tenants Biorizon, Progression Industry and Nettenergy are involved in this project.


ACS Award for Affordable Green Chemistry

January 4, 2016 | C&EN

For chemistry and engineering advances that enable commercial application of safe and scalable aerobic oxidation reactions in the development and manufacture of pharmaceuticals.


Can Bio-Based Chemicals Improve Products’ Performance and Sustainability?

January 4, 2016 | Environmental Leader

Driven largely by increasing environmental concerns, government support for environmentally responsible sources and processes, and technological innovations, market participants see the need to shift focus from petrochemical feedstock to renewable feedstock.


A Step Forward for Bio-Based Butadiene

January 1, 2016 | Chemical Engineering

Increased use of ethane from shale deposits as a feedstock for ethylene production has focused attention on the growing need for on-purpose production of butadiene, which has traditionally been produced primarily as a byproduct of conventional ethylene production from naphtha.


Could this Plant Hold the Key to Generating Fuel from Co2 Emissions?

January 1, 2016 | The Globe and Mail

Recapturing carbon from the atmosphere is one thing, but a Canadian company wants to go one step further by turning that carbon into fuel. In the process, it hopes to transform the fight against climate change, reports Ivan Semeniuk.


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20th GC&E Conference: Call for Papers Now Open

January 4, 2016 | Nexus Blog

Submit an abstract by February 15, 2016 for a chance to be a part of the 20th Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference.




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The 20th Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference: “Advancing Sustainable Solutions by Design”


Call for papers for the 20th GC&E Conference, held June 14-16, 2016 in Portland, Oregon, will be open from January 4, 2016 through February 15, 2016!


Held by the ACS Green Chemistry Institute®, this event is the premier conference on green chemistry and engineering. Hundreds of participants from industry, government, and academia come together every year to share research as well as education and business strategies to ensure a green and sustainable future.


If you are interested in contributing your part to GC&E by presenting a paper, or would like to see a listing of topics to be covered, visit the technical track program page at this year’s conference website. Abstracts are due by February 15, 2016.


Please contact with any conference related questions.




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Vermont Chemical Reporting Rule Moves Forward, but with Delay

December 16, 2015 | The National Law Review

The Vermont Department of Health won approval for its new, burdensome children’s product green chemistry reporting program from the state’s Legislative Committee on Administrative Rules in November 2015.


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Endocrine Disruptors: European Commission 'breached law'

December 16, 2015 | BBC News

The European Court of Justice has ruled that the European Commission has not been quick enough in identifying and banning potentially harmful "endocrine disruptor" chemicals.


Young Scientists Receive UNESCO Environmental Awards

December 16, 2015 | Sputnik News

UNESCO grants have been awarded to young scientists from six countries for research in environmental protection and human health under a program run by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the Russian company PhosAgro.


Metabolic Pathway in Cyanobacteria Could Yield Better Biofuels

December 15, 2015 | Biomass Magazine

Scientists from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory discovered that a metabolic pathway previously only suggested to be functional in photosynthetic organisms is actually a major pathway and can enable efficient conversion of carbon dioxide to organic compounds.


DuPont Making Another Foray into the Biosciences Sector

December 15, 2015 | Elsevier

DuPont is taking its efforts to another level through a purchase of the C1 platform from Dyadic International.


Cost of Banning BPA in till Receipts Outweighs Benefits, EU Agency Concludes

December 14, 2015 | Chemistry World

The ECHA’s committee for risk assessment (RAC) ruled that there is a risk of BPA exposure for the unborn children of pregnant cashiers who handle large numbers of cash receipts. In light of this, the RAC called for a restriction on BPA in thermal paper.


Entrepreneurs Turn Billion Dollar Seafood Waste into Profitable Products

December 14, 2015 | The Guardian

From wallets to antibacterial fabric, innovators are turning once discarded fish waste into money.


New, Fully Recyclable and Biodegradable Plastic Could Change the World

December 12, 2015 | ZME Science

Colorado State University chemists synthesized a fully recyclable, biodegradable polymer, in order to keep tons of plastic from piling up in the landfills in the future and break petroleum’s grip on the polymer industry.


ACS GCI in the News


ACS Summer School on Green Chemistry & Sustainable Energy

December 17, 2015 | American Chemical Society

The 2016 ACS Summer School on Green Chemistry & Sustainable Energy will be held June 21-28 at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado. Apply today!


Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards Program: Nominations due December 31st!

December 17, 2015 | EPA

Submit your PGCCA nominations by the end of the year! The 2016 ceremony will be held June 13, 2016 in Portland, Oregon.




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