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Safety is a core value of the American Chemical Society.  You have likely seen this phrase in recent communications from ACS, such as the announcement of the termination of the ACS National Meeting in Philadelphia last month.  This core value of the Society was the driving force behind our decision to transition the Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference from an in-person meeting to a virtual event in June due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

We are heartened by stories of kindness and moments of grace during the current crisis:  Companies and higher education institutions donating PPE to first responders, neighbors bringing groceries to senior citizens, and people donating to restaurant workers while their businesses are closed.  ACS is supporting the scientific community by making COVID-19 related articles published in ACS journals freely available.  Chemical Abstracts Service is providing open access to its COVID-19 antiviral candidate compounds dataset.  In addition, the American Association of Chemistry Teachers has unlocked numerous resources to assist parents and teachers in educating children at home. 

 

None of us envisioned our current situation when we began planning this year’s conference.  We are all struggling to maintain a sense of normalcy as we work remotely and distance ourselves from family and friends.  We understand that, for many of you, the conference is not at the top of your priority list as you teach online and continue to support your students while labs are shuttered. 

 

During this challenging time, we are committed to offering a high-quality virtual conference that will enable you to share your research breakthroughs and education initiatives with colleagues around the globe.  Conference Co-Chairs Meg Sobkowicz-Kline and Rafa Luque have organized a strong program with input from the Advisory Committee and symposium organizers, and details of the online experience will be posted at www.gcande.org as soon as additional information is available.  While we will miss the face-to-face conversations, greeting old friends and meeting new colleagues, we understand that social distancing is key in stopping the spread of this virus.

 

Stay safe, stay healthy, and stay strong.  We will get through this together.   

 

Mary sig

By Evan Riley, Communication Associate, ACS Green Chemistry Institute

 

Dan Bailey of Takeda Pharmaceuticals wins Peter Dunn Award.The recipient of this year’s Peter J. Dunn Award for Green Chemistry & Engineering Impact in the Pharmaceutical Industry is Dan Bailey of Takeda Pharmaceuticals. Bailey is based at Takeda’s R&D facility in Cambridge, Mass.

 

Established in 2016 by the ACS GCI Pharmaceutical Roundtable, the Peter J. Dunn Award recognizes excellence in the research, development and execution of green chemistry that demonstrates improvements in environmental, safety and efficiency over current technologies in the pharmaceutical industry and its allied industrial partners. The award was established in honor of Peter J. Dunn of Pfizer.

 

Bailey’s technology, titled “Beyond Organic Solvents: Synthesis of a 5-HT Receptor Agonist in Water”, uses Takeda’s pre-existing TAK-954 process as a test case to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing reactions in water. The technology simultaneously comprises all three focus areas of the award, 1) greener more sustainable synthetic routes and their associated processes to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) or intermediates, 2) reaction conditions, and 3) chemical or manufacturing process technologies as applied at meaningful scale. Bailey’s technology achieves this by developing greener reaction conditions while reducing a six-step synthesis (all reactions and isolations from water) to four.

 

Bailey developed a potential alternative to Takeda’s TAK-954 six-step current manufacturing sequence to be run almost entirely in water. Doing this replaces five separate organic solvents and simultaneously implements five direct isolations from aqueous media. Key transformations carried out in aqueous media include a benzimidazole cyclization, amidation, reductive amination, and a selective oxidation of an aliphatic alcohol. Because the reductive amination and aliphatic alcohol oxidation using the new surfactant technology were not previously described in the literature, new methodologies were invented specifically for this application. In addition to shortening the synthetic route by two steps and removing the vast majority of organic solvents from the process, Bailey and his team were able to reduce the overall PMI (Process Mass Intensity) from 350 to 111. The team noticed that shifting the reaction and isolation media from organic solvents to water had additional benefits. These include reducing the portion of the PMI attributable to solvents from 223 to 19, and surprisingly, reducing the portion of the PMI attributable to water from 106 to 76.

 

Along with receiving the Peter J. Dunn Award for Green Chemistry & Engineering Impact in the Pharmaceutical Industry, Dan Bailey will be presenting his technology at the 2020 Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference. Nominations for the 2021 award will open in the fall. To find out more, visit: https://www.acsgcipr.org/educating-leaders/#awards

By Jenny MacKellar, Program Manager, ACS Green Chemistry Institute

 

Supporting the next generation of green chemists is a strategic priority for the ACS Green Chemistry Institute (GCI). Luckily, the chemistry community is full of accomplished chemists who share a passion for scientific research and understand the value of supporting young researchers in their efforts to advance the best science. To this end, ACS GCI recently launched the Heh-Won Chang PhD Fellowship in Green Chemistry to support graduate students conducting innovative and high-quality green chemistry research. Recipients of this $5,000 award are invited to present their research at ACS GCI’s annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference.

 

The award’s namesake, Dr. Heh-Won Chang, was a celebrated chemist who dedicated his life to composites research. Dr. Chang earned a B.S. in chemistry at Yonsei University in Seoul, South Korea in 1961 before moving to the United States to study physical chemistry at Kansas State University where he received his M.S. in 1969 and Ph.D. in 1971. Dr. Chang’s research career included investigating carbon-carbon composites for aircraft brakes at Bendix Research Laboratories in Southfield, Michigan; researching the physical properties of polymers and continuous fiber composites at Bendix Advanced Technology Center in Columbia, Maryland; and managing the Allied-Signal’s Spectra composite business. Dr. Chang is credited with numerous papers in publications including the Journal of the American Chemical Society and the Journal of Chemical Physics. Dr. Heh-Won Chang passed away in 1994, but his memory lives on in this green chemistry fellowship established by his wife, Cecilia P. Chang in 2019.

 

2020 Winners of the Heh-Won Chang, PhD Fellowship in Green Chemistry

 

Nakisha

Nakisha Mark is a doctoral candidate in the department of chemistry at the University of the West Indies in Trinidad. Her work focuses on using greener catalysts to improve the conversion of biomass into renewable fuels. Mark is exploring the conversion of furfural, which is readily available in agricultural waste, into biofuels using nanocatalysts comprised of earth-abundant metals. Mark hopes her work will improve the sustainability of agricultural practices, particularly in the Caribbean region, by closing the loop on agricultural waste and improving the production of renewable fuels. She will present her work at the annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference in the “Earth Abundant Metal Catalysis” technical session.

 

 

heatherHeather LeClerc is a second-year doctoral candidate at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in Worcester, Massachusetts. Her research explores the use of a novel technology—hydrothermal liquefaction—to produce bio-crude from municipal food waste. This unique approach valorizes a waste stream while producing a more sustainable fuel source, thus addressing two unique sustainability challenges. LeClerc’s work aims to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this process in hopes of developing more sustainable, bio-based products. Heather will present her work at the annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference in the “International Opportunities for the Production of Chemicals/Fuels from Waste” technical session.

Are you planning to attend the ACS National Meetings in Philadelphia this March? Don't miss these sustainable and green chemistry and engineering events!

 

Fun and Giveaways at the ACS GCI Booth in the Expo!

First, drop by the Expo and visit the ACS Green Chemistry Institute (within the main ACS booth) to go deeper with green chemistry--whether you are a professor, student, or industry researcher. Plus, participate in engaging activities, get giveaways and don't forget to pick up green chemistry gear at the ACS Store! Additionally, the ACS GCI Pharmaceutical Roundtable will be presenting in the ACS Theatre (Booth 707) on Tuesday, March 24 from 1 - 2 p.m.

 

Exhibit Hours

Sunday, March 22, 5:30 – 7:30 p.m.
Monday, March 23, 9 a.m. – 5 p.m.
Tuesday, March 24, 9 a.m. – 4 p.m.
Booth 707, Exhibit Hall B/C, PA Convention Center

 

Practical Green Chemistry Tools and Techniques for Research and Development Scientists
This workshop will equip practicing chemists and engineers, as well as graduate students, with practical tools, methods and metrics. The content of the workshop will start with green chemistry basics and then focus on the most recent innovative tools and metrics that are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. The workshop will be tailored toward scientists working in the pharmaceutical industry, but the tools could be applied to other chemical industries as well. This workshop requires preregistration. Please email gci@acs.org

 

Tuesday, March 24, 9 a.m. – 12 p.m.
William Penn, Hampton Inn Center City Philadelphia

 

Green Chemistry Student Chapters: Success Stories
The Green Chemistry Award has quickly become one of the most sought after accolades for student chapters. To be eligible for green chemistry status, chapters must engage in at least three green chemistry activities per year, ranging from community outreach activities to hosting invited speakers. This symposium will provide a platform for student chapters who have been awarded green chemistry status to share their unique strategies and stories. Through peer-to-peer student conversations, more student chapters may be inspired and empowered to achieve green chemistry status.

 

Monday, March 23, 8:30 am
Terrace Ballroom II & III – Theater 4, PA Convention Center

 

Green Chemistry & Engineering: Designing & Discovering Innovative Solutions to Achieve a Sustainable Future
This full-day symposium will feature speakers who are active in developing novel, green and sustainable chemistries and technologies, including research that has been financially supported by the ACS GCI Pharmaceutical Roundtable. Research topics presented, such as biocatalysis, non-precious-metal catalysis, C-H activation, and flow chemistry, align with the Roundtable's vision of a sustainable pharmaceutical industry. Celebrating its 15th anniversary this year, the ACS GCI Pharmaceutical Roundtable's activities are driven by the shared belief that green chemistry and engineering is imperative for society, business, and environmental sustainability.

 

Wednesday, March 25, 8 a.m. & 1 p.m.
Michael A Nutter Theatre, PA Convention Center

 

There are many more great sustainable and green chemistry symposia at the ACS National Meeting. Check out this selection, and browse the online program for others!

 

ACS-CEI Award for Incorporation of Sustainability into Chemistry Education (CHED)

Green Polymer Chemistry: New Products, Processes & Applications (POLY)
Advancing Green & Sustainable Chemistry Education: Small Molecules to Macromolecules (CHED)

Fundamentals of Chemistry Outreach Education: From Program Design to Assessment (CHED)

Critical Materials: Recycling, Recovery & Alternatives (I&EC)

Green Chemistry & the Environment (ENVR)

Renewable Plastics: Conversion of Waste Plastic to Fuels & Chemicals (ENFL)

Sustainability & Relevance in Chemistry Education: Theory & Practice (CHED)

Advances in Renewable Materials (CELL)

Sustainability in Bioprocessing (BIOT)

Re-envisioning Chemistry’s Role in Environmental Sustainability: Perspectives on Progress & Future Directions (ENVR)

Road to Packaging Sustainability (POLY)

State of the Art: Connecting Systems Thinking & Green & Sustainable Chemistry through the UN Sustainable Development Goals (CHED)

 

See you in Philly!

Contributed by Tomi Minato, Planning Manager, Japan Association for Chemical Innovation (JACI)

 JACI

The Japan Association for Chemical Innovation is a public interest incorporated association with members from the chemical industry, consumer products industry, academia and major research institutions of the country. Based on green and sustainable chemistry, JACI promotes various high-quality public businesses that contribute to the creation of technological innovation with the aim of enhancing the sustainable development of society and healthy growth of the economy.

 

Chairman Mr. Hideki Kobori Greeting from Mr. Hideki Kobori, Chairman of JACI

(President & Representative Director, ASAHI KASEI CORPORATION)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Activities and Member Benefits

JACI is a platform for everyone involved in chemistry where a common awareness of the direction of this new chemistry is shared. Also, innovative technologies are created and intellectual technology bases can be developed through the activities on our platform. Our members have the privilege to obtain activities such as:

 

GSCNGSCN

In order to promote green and sustainable chemistry (GSC) activities in Japan effectively and powerfully, GSC Network was born in 2000 from a collaboration of academic societies, organizations and national laboratories. Being transitioned to JACI in 2011, GSCN has been playing a crucial role in promoting GSC nationwide.

 

Major activities focus on those listed below.

 

Awards 

  • GSC Awards
    The achievements are awarded either by the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry, or by the Minister of the Environment, or by the Minister of Education, Sports, Culture, Science and Technology, depending on their achievements. 
  • GSC Student Travel Grant Awards
    The GSC Student Travel Grant Award (STGA) recognizes graduate students who are doing outstanding research in the field of GSC.In addition, a supplementary prize is awarded when students participate in the GSC International Conference or the GSC Asia-Oceania Conference to gain international experience. This year STGA targets AOC-8 which will be held on Nov. 25-27 in New Zealand.
  • GSC Junior Awards
    Excellent presentation on GSC by junior and high school students will be awarded as "GSC Junior Award" at the Chemistry Club Research. Presentation organized by the Kanto Chapter of The Chemical Society of Japan.

 

Conferences

  • International Green & Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) Conference
    The 1st GSC International Conference was held in Tokyo 2003. The 7th one came back to Japan again where the organizing committee proclaimed the Tokyo Declaration 2015. The next GSC Conference, the 10th, will be held in Budapest, Hungary in 2021.  
  • Asia-Oceania Conference (AOC)
    In order to build a new industrial technology system with stakeholders in Asia and Oceania, the Asia-Oceania Network was established in 2004. The 1st Asia-Oceania Conference was held in Tokyo in 2007. India, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, China, Australia, New Zealand, Taiwan, South Korea, Thailand and Japan have joined together to hold the upcoming 8th AOC that will be at Auckland, New Zealand on November 25-27, 2020.
  • JACI/GSC Symposium
    JACI holds JACI/GSC symposium in Japan every year with approximately 750 participants. This coming 8th Symposium will be held on June 10-11 under the theme “New Chemistry- Creating Value for the Future Society”.

 

GSC Instructions

It is essential for the key players in a sustainable society to know what GSC is in a broader manner.

One can learn some social practices based on the achievements of GSC AWARD Winners on GSC Instructions posted. These instructions help one to understand GSC, and have been downloaded broadly—not only by scientists, but also by university classes around the world. 
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Newsletter

JACI issues their newsletter four times a year. Here is a recent article by Dr. Mary Kirichhoff, Director, ACI GCI.

 

Tomi Minato, Planning Manager of JACI (left) with Mary Kirchhoff, Director of ACS GCI

 

JACI Activities

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Although chemistry occurs in systems in nature, most students still learn chemistry in a reductionist manner—looking at the discrete parts without a clear idea how it connects to the whole. Now chemistry educators are starting to integrate the concept of “systems thinking” into the chemistry classroom. The ACS Green Chemistry Institute, in partnership with other groups, recently helped pull together a special issue of J. Chem. Ed. on systems thinking and green chemistry that is a great resource for those interested in exploring this topic further. 

 

Systems thinking has a number of definitions—so it is no wonder many people are wondering, “What is systems thinking and how does it relate to green chemistry?” The ACS GCI recently created this short animated video to attempt a simple explanation on how green chemistry encourages chemists to use a systems thinking approach to their chemistry.

 

ST

Systems Thinking and Green Chemistry - YouTube 

 

As we move into 2020, the Institute will continue our work mapping out the green chemistry theme for the organic and general chemistry Anchoring Concepts Content Maps. This work will take place in a series of workshops. If you are interested in participating, there is an opportunity to do so at the Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (BCCE) meeting this summer in Corvallis, Oregon.

 

In addition, we will continue to advance our three-year plan to create resources for undergraduate chemistry professors to teach green chemistry, systems thinking and the U.N. Sustainability Development Goals within the general chemistry and organic chemistry curriculum. Stay tuned to The Nexus to learn more about this community-based project as it develops.

The ACS Green Chemistry Institute® convened companies in the oil and gas industry at the annual ACS GCI Hydraulic Fracturing Roundtable recently to discuss greener chemicals and processes in hydraulic fracturing. Baker Hughes hosted the meeting at their Western Hemisphere Education Center in Tomball, Texas. Attending companies included DuPont, Baker Hughes, BASF, Canadian Energy Services, Rockwater and its subsidiary, Select Energy, and Locus BioEnergy. A diversity of participants were at the table ranging from chemists to chemical and petroleum engineers to microbiologists to technology and business development leads. Apache is also a Roundtable member.

 

The ACS GCI Hydraulic Fracturing Roundtable’s mission is to integrate green chemistry and engineering principles into the chemical supply chain for hydraulic fracturing. Since 2015, the Roundtable has sought to enable informed decisions about those chemicals commonly employed in hydraulic fracturing, and works to promote the prioritized development of more sustainable chemical alternatives.

 

The Roundtable has investigated the potential use of enzymes for biofilm degradation, recently wrapping up a research project with Montana State University’s Center of Biofilm Engineering. The Roundtable continues to pursue its interest in minimizing the use of biocides, and may turn its attention to bio-based water treatment to enable increased water recycling in a typical frack operation. At the meeting, Ken Barrett of BASF Enzymes presented three commercial examples of BASF’s work on “Enzymes in Hydraulic Fracturing”.

 

Professor Pedro Alvarez, director of the NSF Nanosystems Engineering Research Center at Rice University, presented current research in “Nanotechnology-Enabled Water Treatment”. The research center is developing, among a host of opportunities, nanotech for on-site industrial water treatment. This would enable remote oil and gas locations to clean and reuse water rather than having to transport it and treat it offsite.

 

Locus BioEnergy’s Amir Mahmoudkhani, director of technology, presented “Microbial Surfactants: Properties and Applications in Oilfield Completion.” Locus BioEnergy has developed a fermentation process that makes use of vegetable oil and sugar to produce a novel bio-based and renewable surfactant with superior properties to existing surfactants produced through a traditional chemical manufacturing process.  

 

Matt Todd, director of the American Petroleum Institute’s Environmental Program, presented an overview of their work to improve the environmental performance of the oil and natural gas industry. Collaborating with over 70 operator companies, the initial focus of the group is the reduction of methane and volatile organic compound emissions to air, from oil and natural gas operations across the sector.

 

Since we will continue to rely on non-conventional oil and gas for chemicals and fuel for the foreseeable future, it is essential to take every opportunity to apply more sustainable and greener chemistry approaches to the industry, even as we strive to adopt low-carbon energy sources. Looking forward, the Roundtable is working on a publication outlining some of these challenges and opportunities, and will continue to explore the topics above, in addition to greener alternatives for produced water management.

April 22, 2020 marks the 50th anniversary of Earth Day. Conceived by Senator Gaylord Nelson, Earth Day reminds us of our obligation to care for our fragile planet. Signs of humanity’s negative impact on the environment were evident when the first Earth Day was observed in 1970: The Cuyahoga River caught fire multiple times, bird populations were threatened due to the use of DDT, and more than 100 people, most of them children, were killed when a coal mine waste pile collapsed in Aberfan, Wales. 

 

These environmental disasters were a wake-up call: We could not continue to make and dispose of chemicals by simply discarding them in the environment. We needed to understand the fate of chemicals in the environment and their impact on organisms. Dilution was not the solution to pollution.

 

Many environmental laws, such as the Clean Water Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act, were enacted in order to clean up the environment. These efforts resulted in cleaner bodies of water and less polluted skies. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 introduced a new paradigm, one that focused on preventing pollution rather than cleaning it up at the end. Green chemistry and engineering grew out of this new mindset, recognizing that the choices made by chemists and chemical engineers at the start determine the overall impact of the process and product.

 

As you plan your Earth Day celebrations with your ChemClub, student chapter, local section, international chapter, or technical division, I encourage you to think about ways to incorporate green chemistry and engineering into your messaging and activities. When you share your love of chemistry with the public, point out greener approaches, such as the use of renewable starting materials and benign solvents, which chemists are implementing to prevent pollution. 

 

Green chemistry and engineering are powerful approaches to protecting our planet from the unintended consequences of the practice of chemistry. Let’s leave the Earth in better shape for the 100th anniversary of Earth Day in 2070!        

 

Mary sig

By Peter Reinhardt, Director, Environmental Health and Safety at Yale University, and Chair, ACS Committee on Chemical Safety Safe Practices Subcommittee

 

The American Chemical Society creates statements to promote public policies that help the chemistry enterprise and its practitioners serve the nation. In this way, ACS addresses various challenges such as economic opportunity, energy and water availability, and environmental sustainability.  ACS’ twenty policy statements are managed and posted by ACS External Affairs & Communications.

 

Safety in the Chemistry Enterprise” was created with the help of the Committee on Chemical Safety and the Division of Chemical Health and Safety, and reviewed by the Committee on Environmental Improvement. ACS regularly renews these statements to reaffirm their support and update their content. A new version of “Safety in the Chemistry Enterprise” was approved by the ACS Board in December.

 

The revised policy supports the use of risk-based criteria in creating safety regulations and policies, and continued funding of research to inform policy makers and stakeholders in the creation of those regulations and policies. The policy also supports government implementation of regulatory policies that will foster innovation within a safer chemical environment.

 

Safety and green chemistry go hand-in-hand, with many common objectives and outcomes that support each other. The green chemistry community may find the new policy’s advocacy of green and sustainable chemistry of interest. The new version adds support for “safe, responsible, and ethical sourcing of chemicals and other raw materials,” as well as promotion of “policies, regulations, and incentives that encourage adoption of safer products, materials and processes.” Note that ACS has a separate, detailed “Sustainability and the Chemistry Enterprise” policy statement.

 

ACS’ policy statements ensure that its advocacy is aligned with formally-adopted consensus policies. For example, supported by this policy, ACS has called on Congress to fully fund the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Board.

By Christiana Briddell, Sr. Communications Manager, ACS Green Chemistry Institute, and featuring Yalinu Poya, Ph.D. student at the University of Glasgow.

 

When you start to scratch the surface of the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the first thing that becomes apparent is that they are often interconnected and have synergistic relationships. A world without hunger is the ideal of Goal #2. This goal alone reaches beyond agriculture practices and touches social and financial systems, land development trends, equality and access issues; grapples with the threats from climate change (to which agriculture also contributes); and impacts the health of land, air, and water.

 

The key, however, to ending hunger has to be in developing a comprehensive, fundamentally sustainable food production system that is resilient to the effects of climate change, maintains and promotes biodiversity, water and land management practices, and can be applied by the small-scale farmers that make up the 40-85% of food production in many parts of Asia, Latin America and Africa.

 

Currently, the U.N. estimates that 1 in 9 people in the world are undernourished, a number that has risen over the last three years rather than declined. In Africa, 20% of the population is considered undernourished, but even in wealthy countries like the United States, food insecurity affects 11% of the population.

 

There are many areas related to Goal #2 that are relevant to chemists. Increasing agricultural production and fighting pests has been the focus of agricultural scientists for decades. New technology-assisted farming promises a smarter approach to fertilizer application, crop protection management, and water management.

 

Innovations such as Dow AgroSciences LLC’s Instinct Technology, (which won a Green Chemistry Challenge Award in 2016), helps reduce nitrogen pollution from fertilizer runoff by making the nitrogen in fertilizer applications more available to crops and slower to degrade into unusable forms.

 

Phosphorus, like nitrogen, is essential for plant growth and one of the main ingredients in fertilizer, but phosphorus will become increasingly difficult to mine in the future, with peak production estimated to hit between 10-60 years from now. Currently, most phosphorus that is not absorbed by plants, runs off into water bodies where it contributes to eutrophication. Research is needed to find ways to recover and recycle phosphorus from sewage treatment plants using low-energy, highly-efficient separations.

 

Alternative pesticides, fungicides and herbicides that are more environmentally friendly are another area of ongoing research and development. Biopesticides, derived from microorganisms that naturally attack crop pests and diseases, have been explored for a variety of applications. For example, Agraquest, Inc. (now Bayer CropScience) was an early Green Chemistry Challenge Winner for their biofungicide Serenade, which makes use of a naturally occurring bacteria. Companies like Marrone Bio Innovations have developed a number of bio-based solutions derived from microorganisms and plant extracts.

 

Genetic resilience is important to this goal, with a focus on preserving the genetic diversity of crop species for the future. Finding varieties and modifying genes in order to develop qualities such as drought resistance may be an important tool as some regions dry out. In other regions, there will be a need for salt-resistant crops, or protection from molds and fungus, and in all cases, increased yields.

 

Improving the Sustainability of Nitrogen Production through Catalysis

 

One of the biggest challenges to making the modern agricultural system more sustainable is the energy demands of a reaction at its heart—the Haber-Bosch Process for the production of ammonia. I asked Yalinu Poya, originally from Papua New Guinea, and currently a Ph.D. student in Prof. Justin Hargreaves research group at the University of Glasgow, U.K., to share her approach to this issue:

 

Picture 1: Sourced from https://www.greentalents.de/yalinu-poya.php

Catalysis is continuously making great contributions towards improving, or in some cases, resolving some of the world’s most common and demanding challenges that we continue to face. My specialty is in heterogeneous catalysis with my Ph.D. research focusing on synthesizing catalysts for ammonia production in the Haber–Bosch Process. The Haber–Bosch Process is a mature technology developed in the early 20th Century, however there are many currently pressing challenges to make it more sustainable. By addressing its catalyst component through my research, I believe many of the problems associated with the process can be solved, or my research could contribute to a greater solution.

 

The Haber–Bosch Process, which was developed in the early 1900’s, was a landmark achievement of the 20th Century. Currently, the process produces over 174 million tonnes of ammonia annually, establishing an accessible route for the production of over 450 million tonnes of synthetic fertilizer. In itself, this sustains food production for 40% of the global population.

 

The Haber–Bosch Process involves combining pure H2 and N2 feedstreams directly over a promoted iron catalyst at temperatures of around 400°C and reaction pressures of over 100 atmospheres. The reaction is exothermic and is equilibrium limited, thus it is thermodynamically favoured at lower reaction temperatures. Despite this, the temperature of operation is dictated by the requirement to achieve acceptable process kinetics.

 

Due to the reaction conditions involved in the process at a global scale, including the generation of feedstock, the operation of the Haber–Bosch Process currently consumes 1-2% of the world’s energy demand and produces 1.6% of man-made CO2 emissions. To reduce these harmful effects and yield massive rewards both in terms of economic and environmental benefits, there is great interest in the development of small-scale local ammonia production plants based on renewable hydrogen generated from water via electrolysis and powered by sustainable electricity sources such as wind energy. In such a context, which would facilitate the production of ammonia on a localized scale close to its point of use such as on a farm, it is necessary to develop novel ammonia synthesis catalysts which are active under less severe operational conditions appropriate to smaller scale reactors.

 

It is notable that a number of active ammonia synthesis catalysts are comprised of cobalt in addition to other active metals – a combination of cobalt and rhenium as a bimetallic catalyst shows high ammonia synthesis activity. Despite its low surface area, cobalt rhenium is an active catalyst in ammonia synthesis, however a more highly dispersed catalytic phase can be obtained by application of a suitable catalyst support. It can be anticipated that this would lead to enhanced catalytic performance.

 

The United Nations has designed and implemented 17 Sustainable Development Goals specifically to make the world a better place by facilitating a sustainable future for everyone. It is estimated that the world population will reach 9.1 billion by the year 2050, consequently food production will need to rise by 70% to keep up with global demands. Farmers will require more fertilizers to maintain fertile soil in order to produce healthy crops, which will result in an increased demand in the production of fertilizers. Since ammonia is the main component in fertilizers, it too will need to increase in production in order to fulfill Goal 2–Zero Hunger.

 

Picture: Sourced from https://www.greentalents.de/yalinu-poya.php

By David Constable, Science Director, ACS Green Chemistry Institute

 

In 2013, members of the American Chemical Society Green Chemistry Institute (ACS GCI) Chemical Manufacturers Roundtable (ChMRT), conceived a project to identify how to fundamentally change the way separations technologies are applied in the chemical processing industries. The Roundtable formed a collaborative partnership with the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) and received funding from a NIST AmTech grant, to make this project, the Road Map to Accelerate Industrial Adoption of Less-Energy Intensive Alternative Separations (AltSep), a reality.  The initiative was led by ACS GCI ChMRT members, Robert Giraud of Chemours and Amit Sehgal of Solvay, with assistance from David Sullivan of Kraton Industries and Samy Ponusammy of MilliporeSigma. Today, the ACS GCI released the project’s final report, which is considered a key step forward in advancing the rational design and predictable, widespread, industrial application of less energy-intensive separations processes as alternatives to distillation.

 

The implementation of alternative separations technologies, as identified in the AltSep report, has the potential to transform the competitiveness and sustainability of the global chemistry enterprise.  Conventional fluid separations account for over 33% of the energy use and over 50% of the capital investment of chemical plants. Despite the cost of these conventional systems, the technology infrastructure changes needed to facilitate industrial availability of less energy-intensive alternative separations processes are so fundamental and significant that they are far beyond the resources of one, or even a small group of companies. The AltSep team recognized early on that a cross-cutting, integrated approach to identifying and prioritizing research, development and demonstration projects would be needed to solve technical challenges, and these challenges were best met by starting at the molecular level.    

 

To enable cost-effective, energy-efficient, fluid separations, the Road Map suggests that beginning with a molecular property-based framework for the selection, simulation and design of industrial separations processes could lead to:

 

  • Reduction of substantial energy use and the associated greenhouse gas emissions compared to separations via traditional approaches, primarily, distillation.
  • The recovery of valuable components in dilute process or waste streams, thereby supporting increasing the U.S. chemical industry's competitiveness and substantially improving its environmental performance.
  • The creation of good, high-technology manufacturing jobs by promoting and advancing new technologies and engineering tools.
  • Educating next generation business, science and engineering leaders in a range of more sustainable separations technologies.

 

The Road Map was developed based on the output from a series of six workshops with a total of 185 participants held over three years and resulted in the articulation of nine research and technology areas shown in the figure below. Workshop participants included experts in separations technologies, molecular modeling, physical/chemical property estimation, self-organizational or interfacial processes, process simulation and design, and other innovators from chemical sciences, physics, and engineering from the chemical process industries, universities, separations equipment and separating agent providers, national labs, and federal agencies. A publicly available version of the AltSep Road Map in PDF format may be downloaded here: AltSep Report 2019

annotation graphic

 

Figure 1:  AltSep key research, development and demonstration needs.

By Jenny MacKellar, Program Manager, ACS Green Chemistry Institute

 

Here at ACS GCI, ensuring that the next generation of chemists is educated with a green chemistry perspective is one of our strategic priorities. Over the years, ACS GCI has developed and led many programs to support this objective, such as our awards programs, student workshops, summer school, and webinars and other resources for ACS undergraduate chemistry chapters. However, we realized the development of a green chemistry education roadmap was needed—a strategic initiative that articulates the goals, implementation strategies and resources needed, while aligning the community around its vision.

 

The vision of the roadmap is to advance chemistry education that equips and inspires chemists to solve the grand challenges of sustainability. Our multi-pronged approach to addressing this vision includes:

 

  1. Describing what green chemistry looks like in the practice of chemistry
  2. Identifying what students need to know to advance sustainability
  3. Offering professional development opportunities to enable faculty to effectively teach green and sustainable chemistry concepts
  4. Creating pull, or demand, from employers seeking to hire chemists with this type of knowledge

 

Through a series of workshops with green chemistry and chemistry education practitioners, a set of green chemistry core competencies for chemistry graduates was developed. The core competencies are highly aspirational, inspirational goals for the next generation of chemists. In order to achieve these goals, a systems thinking approach to chemistry is necessary. However, since the vision and competencies are very high level, extensive work needs to be done to bridge from the aspirational ideas to concrete examples.

 

We are using a multi-pronged approach to advance the vision of the green chemistry education roadmap and adoption of green chemistry into the undergraduate curriculum. One of these approaches has been a partnership with the ACS Examinations Institute to develop a green chemistry theme for the organic and general chemistry Anchoring Concepts Content Maps (ACCM). This process was described in a publication released last week in the Journal of Chemical Education.

 

The product of this collaboration draws connections between green chemistry concepts and the typical content found in general chemistry and organic chemistry courses. Using the ACCMs, we are able to demonstrate that we are not removing fundamental chemistry concepts in favor of green chemistry, rather we are suggesting modifications to existing concepts that would better prepare students to practice chemistry in a more sustainable way.

 

Another reality that we are facing is a crowded curriculum. Demonstrating where green chemistry concepts fit into the foundational chemistry content will also help educators select the most appropriate and meaningful examples for their setting. We understand that flexibility is paramount and that no two institutions are the same.

 

Over the next three years, we will use the green chemistry-themed ACCMs to develop education materials and host capacity-building, or train-the-trainer, workshops to support educators in adopting green chemistry content into their courses. As we move forward with this project, one of the most important things we can have is strong support and engagement from this community and the chemistry education community. We need your candid and productive participation in this process to create the best possible materials and to help create the network to support educators. We will be partnering with other key stakeholders in the community to move this forward as well. So how would you like to be involved? Contact us at gci@acs.org.

By Evan Riley, Communication Associate, ACS Green Chemistry Institute

 

In order to reimagine chemistry for a more sustainable future, the next generation of chemists needs to have a working knowledge of green and sustainable chemistry principles and practices. Attending and presenting at a scientific conference is an important milestone and professional development opportunity for young researchers. To enable this experience for more early-career scientists, the ACS Green Chemistry Institute (ACS GCI) administers several annual awards for students and postdoctoral scholars pursuing research that incorporates green chemistry and engineering design principles. To date, over 100 scholars have benefited from these awards. Many of these scholars have gone on to become scientists and engineers leading the way, as we strive to develop chemistry solutions for the world’s grand sustainability challenges.

 

This year, eight awardees were selected from an impressive pool of applicants. We were excited to see innovative green chemistry work being done by young researchers both domestically and internationally.

 

Thank you to our dedicated judging panels for volunteering their time to review the ever-growing number of applications. This was not an easy task! And, last but certainly not least, congratulations to these outstanding researchers! We’re excited to see what’s in store for you.

 

Kenneth G. Hancock Memorial Award

The Kenneth G. Hancock Memorial Award provides national recognition and honor for outstanding student contributions to furthering the goals of green chemistry through research and/or studies. The ACS Division of Environmental Chemistry and the National Institute of Standards and Technology support the award. Recipients receive $1,000, and an additional $1,000 is available to support travel.

 

The 2020 award will be presented during the 24th Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering (GC&E) Conference, June 16-18, 2020 in Seattle, Washington.

Fernandez 

Ariel Fernandez is an undergraduate chemistry student from the University of Costa Rica. Fernandez’s research is aimed at developing an alternative use for a ubiquitous waste product: cigarette butts. The study finds a way to reuse all parts of the waste product. The extraction of any remaining nicotine to be used locally as a more environmentally friendly pesticide; tar can be converted into biochar and used to filter heavy metals from water; filter material can be decontaminated and used for water filtration; and the paper portion can be recycled into paper business cards.

 

Metin 

Metin Karayilan, a Ph.D. candidate in organic and polymer chemistry at the University of Arizona, is being honored for his work on biomimetic metallopolymers with enhanced catalytic activity for sustainable hydrogen production in water. His research aims to improve the electrochemistry of H2 production as an energy storage solution for renewable energy sources using earth-abundant catalysts.

 

 

Joseph Breen Memorial Fellowship

The Joseph Breen Memorial Fellowship supports the participation of young green chemistry scholars from around the world to attend an international green chemistry technical meeting, conference or training program. The award was established in 2000 through the ACS International Endowment Fund in commemoration of the late Dr. Joe Breen, first director of the Green Chemistry Institute. Each winner receives up to $2,000 for travel and conference expenses.

 

From the nominations received, the 2020 winners are:

chapman 

Emily Chapman is an undergraduate chemistry student from Augsburg University in Minnesota. Chapman has helped to develop a greener alternative to the classic Biginelli reaction using microwave irradiation and a urea catalyst.

 

 

 

 ischia

Giulia Ischia is a Ph.D. student from The University of Trento in Italy. Her work investigates thermochemical processes for the valorization of waste biomass into bio-based products, sustained completely by solar energy.

 

Both women will be presenting their research at the 24th Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference in Seattle, Washington next June.

 

Ciba Travel Awards in Green Chemistry

Established in 2009 through the Ciba Green Chemistry Student Endowment, the Ciba Travel Awards in Green Chemistry aim to expand students’ understanding of green chemistry by facilitating their participation in a scientific conference. The award amount covers conference travel expenses up to $2,000.

 

The winners of the 2020 Ciba Travel Award in Green Chemistry are:

 enright

Mollie Enright, a second-year graduate student in chemistry at the University of Toledo, is studying iron-catalyzed cross-coupling of heterocycles. Her study involves utilizing inexpensive, abundant and less-toxic metals to perform chemical transformations. Enright has been a passionate advocate of green chemistry throughout her academic and professional career. She will present her work at the GC&E meeting in Seattle.

 

 

Tyler Roberts, a M.Sc. candidate in chemistry from the University of Arizona, is developing an alternative glycolipid surfactant using biocatalysis. He will attend and present his research at the GC&E meeting next June.

 

Alia Rubaie is an undergraduate student of biochemistry and chemistry at Santa Clara University in California. Rubaie looks to improve the efficiency of copper use in atom transfer radical polymerization during polymer synthesis by using activators generated by electron transfer (AGET) and radical trap assistance. She will attend and present her work at the ACS National Meeting in Philadelphia in March 2020 at the poster session in the Division of Polymer Chemistry.

 

 

Lorianne Shultz, a first year Ph.D. student in materials chemistry from the University of Central Florida, is developing noble metal-free catalyst systems for remediation of emerging contaminants (e.g. pseudo-estrogens, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and pharmaceuticals), utilizing both photochemical and traditional redox processes. Shultz will present her findings at the GC&E conference next summer.

 

 

By Ian Mallov, Ph.D., Research Chemist at inkbox Tattoos

 

You might have seen news of the young sperm whale who died on a beach in Scotland two weeks ago. A necropsy of the animal found more than 100 kilograms of plastic in its stomach. Fishing nets, plastic cups, bags and rope were among the debris. It’s as yet undetermined whether the plastic contributed to the animal’s death.

 

Perhaps we’ve become immune to this type of news lately – a dull reminder of the accumulating impact humans have on the planet’s other inhabitants. But, disturbingly, this is not the end of these plastics’ life cycle: the recovered plastic will likely go to a landfill and await a degradation process in the tens or hundreds of years. Assuming sufficient light and oxygen, gradual oxidation of the polymers will occur until brittle enough that physical breakage into smaller and smaller pieces allows microbes to metabolize them. Perhaps, before this happens, they will be swept out to sea again.

 

Essentially, the end-of-life issues are a problem of chemical kinetics. I work on the other end of the life cycle. Each day the company I work for, like so many others, rolls out products packaged in plastic to ship throughout the United States, Canada and overseas. To paraphrase the first principle of green chemistry, it’s better to prevent waste than to clean it up later. But how do manufacturers prevent waste when plastics are often the cheapest and most efficient protective packaging?

 

We are all familiar with the excellent barrier properties and light weight of plastics. But since the first synthetic plastic, Bakelite, was patented in 1909, a century of manufacturing optimization has resulted in formidably cheap, widely customizable materials composed of one or more of several common polymers: low- and high-density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and silicones, among others. The efficiency of manufacture of most traditional plastics, including material and energy inputs, makes it difficult for other materials to compete, and indeed this optimization contributes positively to minimizing the environmental impact of their early life cycle.

 

But it is the end-of-life problem that is increasingly urgent. Most plastics in North America still end up in the landfill. Alternatives to landfills such as recycling, pyrolysis to hydrocarbon fuels, and incineration are available, but fillers, stabilizers, plasticizers and colorants complicate these processes, as does food, adhesives, and other contamination from mixed solid waste streams, particularly when trying to recycle plastics. As of 2017, only 8% of U.S.-generated plastics were recycled, 16% incinerated, and the rest went to landfill. This is especially challenging in other parts of the world, especially in Southeast Asia, where a lack of waste management practices result in far less recycling, incineration or landfilling.

 

So what functions do we need from plastics? Their ubiquity makes this seem almost a rhetorical question, and depending on the application, there will be different functions. After all, the functions we need from plastics that go into building, automobile, marine, packaging or other applications vary tremendously and represents a formidable challenge in designing new plastics. For example, as a manufacturer of any good with a limited shelf life, you need a few key benefits from packaging: protection from physical damage, protection from dirt, and reduced exposure to water vapor and oxygen, to name just a few.

 

Measuring the effectiveness of packaging can be quantified by measuring hardness, density, tensile strength, heat resistance and glass transition temperatures. Just as importantly, moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR) and oxygen transmission rate (OTR), often measured in grams per square inch per twenty-four hour period, give an indication of how packaging will slow spoilage of food, goods and chemicals from oxidative processes.

 

Having a rudimentary idea of what to measure, and which metrics are key for your product, allows you to begin the process of evaluating options beyond traditional polymer materials. In the case of plastic packaging, one of the desirable functions that has been suggested is the ability for the plastic to be biodegradable and compostable. A few resources have been developed to help chemists answer the question of whether or not the plastic will be biodegradable and compostable. One such resource is the New York-based Biodegradable Products Institute (BPI), founded in 1999. The BPI has developed a scientifically-based certification system for products to be considered industrially compostable, that is, degrading under typical conditions of industrial compost facilities on a timescale of weeks. The BPI requests physical samples of materials to test for certification.

 

Another venerable resource is ISO 17088: Specifications for Compostable Plastics, published in 2008. While not free, the availability of an ISO standard for over a decade is testament to the slow progress industries have made on this problem.

 

More recently, a myriad of small companies offer bio-based and renewable alternatives to traditional plastics in the form of industrially compostable polymers such as the class of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) including the most recognizable, polylactide (PLA), or paper or cellulose-based materials that mimic the properties of traditional plastics. Companies such as Australia-based Grounded Packaging offer a range of products that are certified compostable under even the milder conditions of home compost piles, mitigating the problem of access to municipal composting facilities.

 

Recent articles in this newsletter have highlighted other approaches to plastics production such as using the pyrolysis of sugar or other biomass to produce monomers through a Fischer-Tropsch process for use in more than just hydrocarbon fuels. The most notable example of this approach is the “Plant Bottle”, developed by Coca-Cola, and now used by a number of drinks manufacturers.

 

Legislation is beginning to catch up with growing consumer demand for more sustainable alternatives to traditional plastics. The parliament of the European Union passed a single-use plastics ban in March of 2019, while Canada followed suit in June. Both are to come into effect in 2021. Countries such as Bangladesh, South Korea, Rwanda and Colombia have announced more limited bans on plastic items. Many cities and municipalities have single-use plastic bans or taxes.

 

With legislation gaining momentum, it is up to chemists to help ensure that laws are informed and effective, and to continue to push the boundaries of their creativity, to think beyond the consumer to a systemic solution for plastics use in modern society. This responsibility includes influencing decisions made in the production and manufacturing of chemicals and consumer goods. After all, the functions plastics impart are essential. It is imperative that we learn how to design and manage them in a way that does not adversely affect human health or the environment. After all, it’s a problem of kinetics.

Amazingly, another year is drawing to a close – it is hard to believe that 20 years ago we were worried about Y2K!  The end of every year brings a time for reflection on the current year and anticipation for the coming year.  2019 has been a good year for the ACS Green Chemistry Institute (ACS GCI), with more than 600 individuals registering for the Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference, which was held jointly with the International Conference on Green & Sustainable Chemistry in June.  The 2020 conference, with a theme of “Systems-Inspired Design,” will be held from June 16-18, 2020 in Seattle, Washington.  Abstract submission opens on January 6, and next year’s conference will feature about 40 technical sessions, the product showcase, a poster session, and ample opportunities for networking with colleagues.  I encourage you to submit an abstract by the February 17 deadline at www.gcande.org.

 

Education has been at the forefront of ACS GCI’s work in 2019.  Connections between green chemistry and systems thinking continue to grow, and a special issue of the Journal of Chemical Education, featuring articles on these two topics, has just been published.  We continue working with the ACS Exams Institute to integrate green chemistry into the Anchoring Concepts Content Maps.  And as reported in my last column, we will be embarking on a new project in 2020 to develop a suite of education resources designed to integrate green and sustainable chemistry into general and organic chemistry.

  

On December 2, the ACS GCI began accepting applications for a new fellowship, the Heh-Won Chang, PhD Fellowship in Green Chemistry.  This fellowship provides graduate students conducting green chemistry research with $5,000 to be used for any purpose, including conference travel, professional development, and living expenses.  Recipients of the fellowship must present their research at the Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference.  Applications are due by 5:00 PM EST on January 5, 2020.  The fellowship was established through the generosity of Mrs. Cecilia Chang in memory of her husband Dr. Heh-Won Chang.

 

Pacifichem will be held one year from now in Honolulu, Hawaii, from December 15-20, 2020.  Along with colleagues in Canada and New Zealand, ACS GCI is organizing a symposium on “Green Chemistry and Engineering’s Role in Achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals.”  Numerous other symposia will focus on green chemistry, including “Green Techniques for Organic & Medicinal Chemistry,” “Green Chemistry and Engineering for a Sustainable Circular Economy,” “Innovations for Green Chemistry:  Striving Towards Zero Waste API Manufacturing,” and “Chemistry for Global Challenges:  A Role for Systems Thinking in Chemistry Education.”  The call for abstracts will open on January 2, 2020 at https://pacifichem2020.abstractcentral.com/.   

 

Significant progress has been made in advancing green chemistry and engineering research and education across the chemistry enterprise, yet much work remains in order to achieve a sustainable planet.  I am grateful for your dedicated efforts to transform the practice of chemistry, and wish you joyous holidays and a happy new year! 

 

 

Mary Kirchoff

 

“The Nexus Blog” is a sister publication of “The Nexus” newsletter. To sign up for the newsletter, please email gci@acs.org, or if you have an ACS ID, login to your email preferences and select “The Nexus” to subscribe.

 

To read other posts, go to Green Chemistry: The Nexus Blog home.

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