• Does Aufbau's principle still apply to hybridized orbitals?

    When atoms like Carbon are sp hybridized, why are the 4 valence electrons distributed to both the sp hybridized and the 2p unhybridized orbitals before the sp orbitals are filled? Aren't sp hybridized orbitals lower e...
    Kyle Walter
    last modified by Kyle Walter
  • Where/how do polyatomic ions obtain extra electrons?

    Hi, I am a high school chemistry student (by no means a chemist or professional). I am wondering how polyatomic ions obtain extra electrons/how they are formed. I understand that polyatomic ions are covalently bonded ...
    Gabby Mauldin
    last modified by Gabby Mauldin
  • How can I well dispose my Adiabatic Super-Fuel System(ASFS)?

    The "diabatic" negantropy on the part of rocket fuels with semi-topologized lattices in vertex position to  the component inorganic atoms are, in my design, sheeted away from those energy levels in which time arr...
    Pooria Solhjoo
    last modified by Pooria Solhjoo
  • Product Testing

    Is there a service where a chemist will provide testing to check a product (i.e. make-up, shampoo, etc.) to see if it's been tampered with?  If so, kindly provide contact info for this service.
    Kelly Lally
    last modified by Kelly Lally
  • Skin on fingers only turning black using well water with high iron content

    I notice when I do the dishes or clean the kitchen or bathroom that my fingers and cuticles and beneath my nails turn black, almost like blackberry staining, except it just seems to be in the skin grooves. I look like...
    Jody N
    last modified by Jody N
  • Can a spectrogram for a composite material, ie a rock, be derived from chemical, crystallographic, and other data?

    I'm a first year part-time engineering student at the University of South Australia, involved in a global citizen science project, Space Decentral Project Coral, headquartered in San Francisco, CA. Our team is designi...
    Julian Grodzicky
    last modified by Julian Grodzicky
  • Can TCD and GC provide accurate concentrations for many types of mixed gases?

    I am trying to purchase accredited primary cal gas but i don't know how to interpret the Scope of calibration provided by the gas provider. I am attaching a picture of the scope (specifically interested in the gas con...
    Chris Fontaine
    last modified by Chris Fontaine
  • How do I determine the activation energy required for a certain reaction?

    I am using a laser to melt and re-fuse a titanium-aluminum alloy in an inert argon environment. The argon is recirculated through a filter via a pump. Slag from the laser melting/fusing process gets caught in the...
    George Grenley
    last modified by George Grenley
  • Exploding hair cream

    Hello, I made a hair cream that I stored in a round plastic jar at room temperature and a week after making the cream, it swelled up in the jar, and when I opened the jar, it exploded and cream sprayed everywhere. I d...
    Mina Anderson
    last modified by Mina Anderson
  • DOSY NMR question

    Hi, I'm looking for help to process a DOSY NMR spectrum. I'd like to know how to transform the gradient decay plot for a given region of the spectrum into a plot showing the diffusion constants (x-axis) vs the intensi...
    Jorge Ayarza
    last modified by Jorge Ayarza
  • Are in vitro tests legitimate in testing methylmercury's response to digestion?

    Hi I am a student in my last semester of a science writing program. I am working on a news piece about how polyphenols might reduce methylmercury absorption. I based much of my piece on the work of a PhD at Canada's U...
    Phillip Mariscal
    last modified by Phillip Mariscal
  • Need help with emulsification in a formulation

    Hello all, I'm looking for direction from professionals to help me find a solution to a emulsification problem I'm having with a simple formula I've created.  Soybean oil needs to mix with water and 5 other ingre...
    Travis Arket
    last modified by Travis Arket
  • Helium atom, Radon Atom and water molecule sizes and concrete?

    Helium atom, Radon Atom and water molecule sizes and concrete? I am not a chemist but am trying to understand atom size vs water molecule size. Labs use the Helium atom (Helium gas) for testing porosity and permeabili...
    last modified by kwilkis
  • Atom attacking

    Through out my learning at university, I never thought of the difficulty of trying to break a bond or create a new one.  Right now it gets harder when i do a stand alone reaction.  Suppose I have a benzene...
    Mashaal Alghamdi
    last modified by Mashaal Alghamdi
  • What atom will be attacked?

     Through out my journey at university, i felt safe and confidant in doing the reactions. After i stod up alone, i was puzzled by the question: If i have a mixture of reactants say a para benzene or meta that are...
    Mashaal Alghamdi
    last modified by Mashaal Alghamdi
  • reaction with ethyl chloroacetate

    I am carrying out a reaction using ethyl chloro acetate , potassium carbonate in acetone for a compound containing -NH group. so the substitution will be at -NH position. i have tried stirring at room temperature, but...
    Nilo G
    last modified by Nilo G
  • What kind of plant cellulose is this?

    I’ve been trying to replicate this hydrogel mask but in the ingredients listed it just says “plant cellulose”. I’ve tried methyl cellulose e4m, but it isn’t firm enough. Here’s the ...
    Annastazia Unce
    created by Annastazia Unce
  • Vapor water density at STP

    Hello. I bought the book "Quimica" (Chemistry in english). I started to read it and a notice this. In page 3 it says that in STP water in gas state has Xxxx density. How do you can have water in gas state at STP? Tha...
    Emilio León
    last modified by Emilio León
  • Will mixing skin care creams together inhibit active ingredients?

    Hello, I'd like to know if mixing different skincare creams/lotions/gels together into one composite cream will cause a chemical interaction that will inhibit any of the active ingredients. My purpose here is to hav...
    Alexander Karayanis
    last modified by Alexander Karayanis
  • question on using Titatnium di oxide

    I am Sanjit Kannan a 5th Grader from May Watts Elementary in Naperville Illinois. I am part of an   FLL team and we are doing a project that involves Titanium Di Oxide(TiO2).  Our Project involve...
    Sanjit Kannan
    last modified by Sanjit Kannan