Publication Details (including relevant citation information): Effect of processing and physical properties on the electrochemical performance of lithium manganese oxide spinel produced from alkali permanganates. Pillai, Chithambarathanu G.; Padhi, Akshaya K.; Osborne, Mike; Pisarczyk, Ken. Carus Chemical Company, LaSalle, IL, USA. ITE Letters on Batteries, New Technologies & Medicine (2001), 2(3), B9-B16. Publisher: ITE-IBA Publication Office, Journal written in English. Abstract A process for the industrial manufacture of lithium manganese dioxide spinel starting from Mn+7 , such as in KMnO4, is described. In this new process, Mn+7 is reduced to Mn+4 forming an alkali containing synthetic MnO2. The alkali in MnO2 is replaced by Li in an ion exchange reaction with a lithium compound to form a spinel precursor that is then calcined to form Mn +3.5, the spinel LiMn2O4. The physical properties of the MnO2 are determined. at the permanganate reduction step by controlling process factors. These MnO2 properties are retained when the spinel is formed. By optimizing the manufacturing. process, a spinel with higher electrochemical capacity and lower fade is produced as compared to a spinel formed by more traditional processes. The electrochemical data indicate that process conditions to produce the precursor MnO2 and the spinel as well as morphology of the particles have a greater effect on the electrochemical performance of the cathode material than those exerted by the physical properties such as particle size or surface area.