Alice Suroviec - Electrochemical Glucose Sensors—Developments Using Electrostatic Assembly and Carbon Nanotubes for Biosensor Construction

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Sensors 2010, 10, 8248-8274

      Abstract:

      In 1962, Clark and Lyons proposed incorporating the enzyme   glucose oxidase in the construction of an electrochemical sensor   for glucose in blood plasma. In their application, Clark and   Lyons describe an electrode in which a membrane permeable to   glucose traps a small volume of solution containing the enzyme   adjacent to a pH electrode, and the presence of glucose is   detected by the change in the electrode potential that occurs   when glucose reacts with the enzyme in this volume of solution.   Although described nearly 50 years ago, this seminal development   provides the general structure for constructing electrochemical   glucose sensors that is still used today. Despite the maturity of   the field, new developments that explore solutions to the   fundamental limitations of electrochemical glucose sensors   continue to emerge. Here we discuss two developments of the last   15 years; confining the enzyme and a redox mediator to a very   thin molecular films at electrode surfaces by electrostatic   assembly, and the use of electrodes modified by carbon nanotubes   (CNTs) to leverage the electrocatalytic effect of the CNTs to   reduce the oxidation overpotential of the electrode reaction or   for the direct electron transport to the enzyme.

      Address (URL): http://www.mdpi.com/journal/sensors