Publication Details (including relevant citation information):
Paul A. Zimmerman, Chris van Peski, Bryan Rice, Jeff Byers, Nicholas J. Turro, Xuegong Lei, Juan Lopez Gejo, Vladmir Liberman, Steve Palmacci, Mordy Rothchild, Andrew Whitker, Idriss Blakey, Lan Chen, Bronwin Dargaville and Heping Liu
Journal of Photopolymer Science and Technology 20 (2007) , 643-650
A review. Generation-three (Gen-3) immersion lithog. can be an enabler for the 32 nm half-pitch node. For Gen-3 lithog. to be successful, however, there must be three major breakthroughs in materials development: high refractive index ("high-index") lenses, high-index immersion fluids, and high-index photoresists. Currently a material for a high-index lens element, lutetium aluminum garnet (LuAG), has been identified. However, suitable materials choices remain elusive for both the Gen-3 fluid and resist. This paper reviews the successes and failures in the search for Gen-3 high-index materials.