Idriss Blakey - Status of High-Index Materials for Generation-Three 193nm Immersion Lithography

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  Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

  Paul A. Zimmerman, Chris van Peski, Bryan Rice, Jeff Byers,   Nicholas J.  Turro, Xuegong Lei, Juan Lopez Gejo, Vladmir   Liberman, Steve Palmacci,  Mordy Rothchild, Andrew Whitker,   Idriss Blakey, Lan Chen, Bronwin  Dargaville and Heping Liu

  Journal of Photopolymer Science and Technology  20  (2007) , 643-650


  A review. Generation-three (Gen-3) immersion lithog. can be an   enabler for the 32 nm half-pitch node. For Gen-3 lithog. to be   successful, however, there must be three major breakthroughs in   materials development: high refractive index ("high-index")   lenses, high-index immersion fluids, and high-index photoresists.   Currently a material for a high-index lens element, lutetium   aluminum garnet (LuAG), has been identified. However, suitable   materials choices remain elusive for both the Gen-3 fluid and   resist. This paper reviews the successes and failures in the   search for Gen-3 high-index materials.

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