Byron Brehm-Stecher - Sample preparation: the forgotten beginning.

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      J Food Prot. 2009   Aug;72(8):1774-89.


      Advances in molecular technologies and automated instrumentation   have provided many opportunities for improved detection and   identification of microorganisms; however, the upstream sample   preparation steps needed to apply these advances to foods have   not been adequately researched or developed. Thus, the extent to   which these advances have improved food microbiology has been   limited. The purpose of this review is to present the current   state of sample preparation, to identify knowledge gaps and   opportunities for improvement, and to recognize the need to   support greater research and development efforts on preparative   methods in food microbiology. The discussion focuses on the need   to push technological developments toward methods that do not   rely on enrichment culture. Among the four functional components   of microbiological analysis (i.e., sampling, separation,   concentration, detection), the separation and concentration   components need to be researched more extensively to achieve   rapid, direct, and quantitative methods. The usefulness of   borrowing concepts of separation and concentration from other   disciplines and the need to regard the microorganism as a   physicochemical analyte that may be directly extracted from the   food matrix are discussed. The development of next-generation   systems that holistically integrate sample preparation with   rapid, automated detection will require interdisciplinary   collaboration and substantially increased funding.

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