Sandeep Kumar Vashist - Advances in carbon nanotube based electrochemical sensors for bioanalytical applications

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

        BIOTECHNOLOGY ADVANCES,   29(2), 169-188,  2011

        (5th among Top   25 Hottest Articles; among most downloaded articles on Biotech.   Adv. as checked on Jul 14, 2011)


      Electrochemical (EC) sensing approaches have exploited the use of   carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as electrode materials owing to their   unique structures and properties to provide strong   electrocatalytic activity with minimal surface fouling.   Nanofabrication and device integration technologies have emerged   along with significant advances in the synthesis, purification,   conjugation and biofunctionalization of CNTs. Such combined   efforts have contributed towards the rapid development of   CNT-based sensors for a plethora of important analytes with   improved detection sensitivity and selectivity. The use of CNTs   opens an opportunity for the direct electron transfer between the   enzyme and the active electrode area. Of particular interest are   also excellent electrocatalytic activities of CNTs on the redox   reaction of hydrogen peroxide and nicotinamide adenine   dinucleotide, two major by-products of enzymatic reactions. This   excellent electrocatalysis holds a promising future for the   simple design and implementation of on-site biosensors for   oxidases and dehydrogenases with enhanced selectivity. To date,   the use of an anti-interference layer or an artificial electron   mediator is critically needed to circumvent unwanted endogenous   electroactive species. Such interfering species are effectively   suppressed by using CNT based electrodes since the oxidation of   NADH, thiols, hydrogen peroxide, etc. by CNTs can be performed at   low potentials. Nevertheless, the major future challenges for the   development of CNT-EC sensors include miniaturization,   optimization and simplification of the procedure for fabricating   CNT based electrodes with minimal non-specific binding, high   sensitivity and rapid response followed by their extensive   validation using “real world” samples. A high resistance to   electrode fouling and selectivity are the two key pending issues   for the application of CNT-based biosensors in clinical   chemistry, food quality and control, waste water treatment and   bioprocessing.

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