Andreas Zavitsas - The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Insights into Multiple Facets of Chemistry and Biochemistry from Freezing-Point Depressions

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Chemistry - A European Journal 2010, 16, 5942-5960.    http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.200903063

      Abstract:

      Contrary to current widely held beliefs, many concentrated   aqueous solutions of electrolytes and nonelectrolytes behave   ideally. For both, the same simple equation yields mole fractions   of water that are equal to the theoretical activities of water.   No empirical activity coefficients or ad hoc parameters are   needed. Thermodynamic hydration numbers and the number of   particles produced per mole of solute are found by searching   freezing point depression measurements, as if asking the water,   “How much available water solvent is left and how many solute   particles are there?” The results answer questions currently   under debate: Do solutes alter the nature of water outside their   immediate surroundings?  What is the number of ion pairs   formed by various electrolytes and what affects extents of their   formation?  What are some factors that cause precipitation   of proteins, latexes, and so forth from aqueous solutions upon   addition of other solutes (Hofmeister series)? Which   nonelectrolytes form aggregates in water and what are the   implications? Why do different solutes affect viscosity   differently? How do ion-selective channels in cell membranes   function at the molecular level?

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