Andreas Zavitsas - Ideal behavior of water solutions of strong electrolytes and non-electrolytes at high concentrations

Version 1

      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Journal of Solution Chemistry 2010, 39, 301-317.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10953-010-9503-3

      Abstract:

      Contrary   to widely held beliefs, many concentrated aqueous solutions of   strong electrolytes and nonelectrolytes are shown to behave   ideally by calculating the activity of water (aw)  from vapor pressure   data. The mole fraction of water (xw)  is equal to the   water activity   aw  (Raoult’s Law) when   the mole fraction of water is calculated by accounting   for water strongly bound   to the solute, which is then not available to act as solvent. In   this case xw  =  (55.51  mHT)/(55.51    mHT  +  im),   where m    is the molality of the solute particles,  i is the   stoichiometric number of solute particles produced per mole of   dissolved solute, and HT  is the thermodynamic   hydration number. Published   reservations about previous work of this type are   addressed. The values of HT  vary little over   wide ranges of concentration and correlate with the   Hofmeister series, the B  coefficient of the   Jones-Dole viscosity equation, and other properties   of water. Activity coefficients of the bulk or “free” water   remain at unity even at high   concentrations.

      Address (URL): http://