Bettye Maddux - Systematic Evaluation of Nanomaterial Toxicity: Utility of Standardized Materials and Rapid Assays

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Stacey L. Harper, Jason Lee Carriere, John M. Miller, James Evan   Hutchison, Bettye L. S. Maddux, and Robert L. Tanguay

      Address correspondence to robert.tanguay@oregonstate.edu.

      Abstract:

      The challenge of optimizing both performance and safety in   nanomaterials hinges on our ability to resolve which structural   features lead to desired properties. It has been difficult to   draw meaningful conclusions about biological impacts from many   studies of nanomaterials due to the lack of nanomaterial   characterization, unknown purity, and/or alteration of the   nanomaterials by the biological environment. To investigate the   relative influence of core size, surface chemistry, and charge on   nanomaterial toxicity, we tested the biological response of whole   animals exposed to a matrix of nine structurally diverse,   precision-engineered gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of high purity   and known composition. Members of the matrix include three core   sizes and four unique surface coatings that include positively   and negatively charged headgroups. Mortality, malformations,   uptake, and elimination of AuNPs were all dependent on these   parameters, showing the need for tightly controlled experimental   design and nanomaterial characterization. Results presented   herein illustrate the value of an integrated approach to identify   design rules that minimize potential hazard.

      Address (URL): http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nn200546k