Alexander KM Leung - Phyllanthus urinaria Extract Attenuates Acetaminophen-induced Hepatotoxicity: Involvement of Cytochrome P450 CYP2E1

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  Phytomedicine,  Vol.   16(8), 751-760 (2009)


  Acetaminophen is a commonly used drug for the treatment of   patients with common cold and influenza. However, an overdose of   acetaminophen may be fatal. In this study we investigated whether   mice, administered intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of   acetaminophen, when followed by oral administration of   Phyllanthus urinaria extract, may be prevented from   death. Histopathological analysis of mouse liver sections showed   that Phyllanthus urinaria extract may protect the   hepatocytes from acetaminophen-induced necrosis. Therapeutic dose   of Phyllanthus urinaria extract did not show any   toxicological phenomenon on mice. Immunohistochemical staining   with the cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 antibody revealed that   Phyllanthus urinaria extract reduced the cytochrome P450   CYP2E1 protein level in mice pre-treated with a lethal dose of   acetaminophen. Phyllanthus urinaria extract also   inhibited the cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 enzymatic activity in   vitro. Heavy metals, including arsenic, cadmium, mercury and   lead, as well as herbicide residues were not found above their   detection limits. High performance liquid chromatography   identified corilagin and gallic acid as the major components of   the Phyllanthus urinaria extract. We conclude that   Phyllanthus urinaria extract is effective in attenuating   the acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity, and inhibition of   cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 enzyme may be an important factor for its   therapeutic mechanism.

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