Dene Taylor - Ice Nucleating Protein for Freeze Exposure Indicators: Criticality for Public Health Protection. 

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Dawn E. Smit,   Carl Lentz, & Dene H. Taylor, Ice-Binding Protein Conference,   Queen’s University, Kingston, Ont., August 2011


      Most biopharmaceuticals such as vaccines are thermally   sensitive.(4) Global vaccination programs against infectious   diseases and toxins are estimated to save approximately 3 million   lives yearly. Tragically, however, another 3 million individuals   (primarily children) die of vaccine-preventable diseases. A   significant portion of this problem results from the thermal   instability of many of the currently used vaccines.(5) Since the   biopharmaceutical distribution system "Cold Chain" often has   breaks the only way to identify temperature abuse is through   accurate reliable monitoring. This presentation will discuss the   development, commercialization and desired technical improvements   of a freeze indicator that uses ice nucleating protein as a key   component. Ice nucleants like SnoMax® (freeze-dried Pseudomonas   syringae) address super-cooling, and stabilizers reduce   degradation and prevent microbe growth. But the nucleant still   has variability and degrades over time, depending upon the   dispersion chemistry and type & amount of stabilizer.   Sensitivity to pH and response to stabilizer content of a   freeze-indicator formulation are presented to stimulate   discussion on some of the challenges this technology faces.

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