Publication Details (including relevant citation information):
Institute for Materia Medica, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, P. R. China
Thrombin is a key enzyme targeted by the majority of current anticoagulants that are direct inhibitors. Allosteric inhibition of thrombin may offer a major advantage of finely tuned regulation. We present here sulfated benzofurans as the first examples of potent, small allosteric inhibitors of thrombin. A sulfated benzofuran library of 15 sulfated monomers and 13 sulfated dimers with different charged, polar, and hydrophobic substituents was studied in this work. Synthesis of the sulfated benzofurans was achieved through a multiple step, highly branched strategy, which culminated with microwave-assisted chemical sulfation. Of the 28 potential inhibitors, 11 exhibited reasonable inhibition of human α-thrombin at pH 7.4. Structure–activity relationship analysis indicated that sulfation at the 5-position of the benzofuran scaffold was essential for targeting thrombin. A tert-butyl 5-sulfated benzofuran derivative was found to be the most potent thrombin inhibitor with an IC50 of 7.3 μM under physiologically relevant conditions. Michaelis–Menten studies showed an allosteric inhibition phenomenon. Plasma clotting assays indicate that the sulfated benzofurans prolong both the activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time. Overall, this work puts forward sulfated benzofurans as the first small, synthetic molecules as powerful lead compounds for the design of a new class of allosteric inhibitors of thrombin.
Address (URL): http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm2005767