Publication Details (including relevant citation information):
Chem. Mater. 2011, 23, 4789-4798
We report new derivatives of symmetric squaraine dyes with N,N-diarylanilino substituents that have high solubility and high absorptivity (ε = 0.71–4.1 × 105 M–1 cm–1) in the red solar spectral region (λmax = 645–694 nm) making them promising candidates for application in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Unsymmetrical N,N-diisobutylanilino- and N,N-diphenylanilino(diphenylamino)squaraines have also been prepared that give blue-shifted absorption spectra (λmax = 529–535 nm) relative to their symmetric counterparts. Compared to bis(N,N-diisobutylanilino)squaraine, both symmetrical and unsymmetrical N,N-diarylanilino squaraines show markedly broader absorption bands in solution than their N,N-dialkylanilino squaraine counterparts: the full width at half-maximum (fwhm) for N,N-diarylanilino squaraines range from 1280–1980 cm–1, while the fwhm value for the N,N-diisobutylanilino squarine is only 630 cm–1. The absorption bands for thin films of N,N-diarylanilino squaraines broaden further to 2500–3300 cm–1. N,N-Diarylanilino squaraines are fluorescent, albeit with lower quantum yields than bis(N,N-diisobutylanilino)squaraine (PL = 0.02–0.66 and 0.80, respectively). OPVs were prepared with solution processed squaraine layers using the following structure: ITO/squaraine (66–85 Å)/C60 (400 Å)/BCP (100 Å)/Al (1000 Å), BCP = bathocuproine. Devices using thin films of the bis(N,N-diarylanilino)squaraines as donor layers show improved performance relative to OPVs prepared with bis(N,N-dialkylanilino)squaraines, i.e. bis(N,N-diisobutylanilino)squaraine: open-circuit voltage Voc = 0.59 ± 0.05 V, short-circuit current Jsc = 5.58 ± 0.16 mA/cm2, fill factor FF = 0.56 ± 0.03, and power conversion efficiency η = 1.8 ± 0.2% under 1 sun, AM1.5G simulated illumination, compared with bis(N,N-diphenylanilino)squaraine: Voc = 0.82 ± 0.02 V, Jsc = 6.71 ± 0.10 mA/cm2, FF = 0.59 ± 0.01, and η = 3.2 ± 0.1%. Morphological studies of thin films suggest that the solubility of bis(N,N-diarylanilino)squaraines plays an important role in controlling the optoelectronic properties of the OPVs.
Address (URL): http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cm2020803