Publication Details (including relevant citation information):
J. Org. Chem. 2006, 71, 4066-4077
The carbonyl ylide dipoles generated by the dirhodium tetra-acetate-catalyzed decomposition of diazocarbonyl precursors 1, 5, and 8 cycloadd to 3-substituted 1,2-diphenylcyclopropenes 3a−e and 3,3-disubstituted cyclopropenes 13, 14, 19, and 20 to give polycyclic compounds with 8-oxatricyclo[3.2.1.02,4]octane and 9-oxatricyclo[3.3.1.02,4]nonane frameworks. Generally, reactions proceed stereoselectively to give adducts of exo stereochemistry with the approach of the carbonyl ylide dipoles from the less-hindered face of cyclopropenes. The electronic properties of the substituent at the C3 position of cyclopropenes play an important role in governing the reactivity of cyclopropenes: when the C3 position is substituted by electron-acceptors such as the methoxycarbonyl or cyano groups, the yields of adducts are decreased significantly or no adducts can be detected at all. Relative reactivities of cyclopropenes were quantified by competition experiments to give the best correlation with σF-Taft constants. Both measured photoelectron spectra and ground-state calculations of a series of 1,2-diphenylcyclopropenes indicate considerable lowering of cyclopropene π-**** energies by substitution with an acceptor group. Such changes in electronic structures of cyclopropenes may cause the inversion of frontier molecular orbital (FMO) interactions from ****cyclopropene−LUMOylide to LUMOcyclopropene−****ylide type. In terms of philicity, nucleophilic properties of acceptor-substituted cyclopropenes are diminished to such an extent that these species are no longer good nucleophiles in the reaction with carbonyl ylides, and neither are they good electrophiles, being unreactive. This was shown by the B3LYP calculations of addends.
Address (URL): http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jo0600656