Feng Xiao -  Perfluoroalkyl acids in urban stormwater runoff: Influence of land use

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent organic pollutants in   the environment and have been reported to have nonpoint sources.   In this study, six PFAAs with different chain lengths were   monitored in stormwater runoff from seven storm events   (2009–2011) at various outfall locations corresponding to   different watershed land uses. We found PFAA(s) in 100% of   stormwater runoff samples. Monitoring results and statistical   analysis show that PFAAs in stormwater runoff from residential   areas mainly came from rainfall. On the other hand,   non-atmospheric sources at both industrial and commercial areas   contributed PFAAs in stormwater runoff. The mass flux of PFAAs   from stormwater runoff in the Twin Cities (Minneapolis and St.   Paul, MN) metropolitan area is estimated to be about 7.86   kg/year. In addition, for the first time, we monitored PFAAs on   the particles/debris in stormwater runoff and found high-level   PFOS on the particulate matter in runoff collected from both   industrial and commercial areas; the levels were so high that the   finding could not be explained by the solid–water partitioning or   adsorption. PFOS on the particulate matter is suspected to have   originated from industrial/commercial products, entering the   waste stream as PFOS containing particles.


      Address (URL): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135411007135