Publication Details (including relevant citation information):
Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 Apr;11(4):898-908. Epub 2012 Feb 14.
VN/12-1 is a novel retinoic acid metabolism blocking agent discovered in our laboratory. The purpose of the study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism of anticancer activity of VN/12-1 in breast cancer cell lines and in tumor xenografts. We investigated the effects of VN/12-1 on induction of autophagy and apoptosis in SKBR-3 cells. Furthermore, we also examined the impact of pharmacologic and genomic inhibition of autophagy on anticancer activity of VN/12-1. Finally, the antitumor activity of VN/12-1 was evaluated as a single agent and in combination with autophagy inhibitor chloroquine in an SKBR-3 mouse xenograft model. Short exposure of low dose (<10 μmol/L) of VN/12-1 induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, and inhibited G(1)-S phase transition and caused a protective response. However, a higher dose of VN/12-1 initiated apoptosis in vitro. Inhibition of autophagy using either pharmacologic inhibitors or RNA interference of Beclin-1 enhanced anticancer activity induced by VN/12-1 in SKBR-3 cells by triggering apoptosis. Importantly, VN/12-1 (5 mg/kg twice weekly) and the combination of VN/12-1 (5 mg/kg twice weekly) + chloroquine (50 mg/kg twice weekly) significantly suppressed established SKBR-3 tumor growth by 81.4% (P < 0.001 vs. control) and 96.2% (P < 0.001 vs. control), respectively. Our novel findings suggest that VN/12-1 may be useful as a single agent or in combination with autophagy inhibitors for treating human breast cancers. Our data provides a strong rationale for clinical evaluation of VN/12-1 as single agent or in combination with autophagy inhibitors.
Address (URL): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22334589