Lokesh Padhye - N-Nitrosamines Formation from Secondary Amines by Nitrogen Fixation on the Surface of Activated Carbon

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

    Padhye LP, Hertzberg B, Yushin G, Huang CH., Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Oct 1;45(19):8368-76


        Our previous study demonstrated that many commercial activated   carbon (AC) particles may catalyze transformation of secondary   amines to yield trace levels of   N-nitrosamines   under ambient aerobic conditions. Because of the widespread usage   of AC materials in numerous analytical and environmental   applications, it is imperative to understand the reaction   mechanism responsible for formation of nitrosamine on the surface   of ACs to minimize their occurrence in water treatment systems   and during analytical methods employing ACs. The study results   show that the AC-catalyzed nitrosamine formation requires both   atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. AC’s surface reactive sites   react with molecular oxygen to form reactive oxygen species   (ROS), which facilitate fixation of molecular nitrogen on the   carbon surfaces to generate reactive nitrogen species (RNS)   likely nitrous oxide and hydroxylamine that can react with   adsorbed amines to form nitrosamines. AC’s properties play a   crucial role as more nitrosamine formation is associated with   carbon surfaces with higher surface area, more surface defects,   reduced surface properties, higher O2    uptake capacity, and higher carbonyl group content. This study is   a first of its kind on the nitrosamine formation mechanism   involving nitrogen fixation on AC surfaces, and the information   will be useful for minimization of nitrosamines in AC-based   processes.

      Address (URL): http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es201696e