Publication Details (including relevant citation information):
E Smith, IM Kempson, A Juhasz, J Weber, A Rofe, D Gancarz, R Naidu, R McLaren, M Gräfe, In vivo - in vitro and XANES spectroscopy assessments of lead bioavailability in contaminated peri-urban soils, Environmental Science and Technology, 45,6145-6152, 2011.
Lead (Pb) bioaccessibility was assessed using 2 in vitro methods in 12 Pb-contaminated soils and compared to relative Pb bioavailability using an in vivo mouse model. In vitro Pb bioaccessibility, determined using the intestinal phase of the Solubility Bioaccessibility Research Consortium (SBRC) assay,
strongly correlated with in vivo relative Pb bioavailability (R2 = 0.88) following adjustment of Pb dissolution in the intestinal phase with the solubility of Pb acetate at pH 6.5 (i.e., relative Pb bioaccessibility). A strong correlation (R2 = 0.78) was also observed for the relative bioaccessibility leaching procedure
(RBALP), although the method overpredicted in vivo relative Pb bioavailability for soils where values were <40%. Statistical analysis of fit results from X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) data for selected soils (n = 3) showed that Pb was strongly associated with Fe oxyhydroxide minerals or the soil organic fraction prior to in vitro analysis. XANES analysis of Pb speciation during the in vitro procedure demonstrated that Pb associated with Fe minerals and the organic fraction was predominantly solubilized in the gastric phase. However, during the intestinal phase of the in vitro procedure, Pb was strongly associated with formation of ferrihydrite which precipitated due to the pH (6.5) of the SBRC intestinal phase. Soils where Fe dissolution was limited had markedly higher concentrations of Pb in solution and hence exhibited greater relative bioavailability in the mouse model. This data suggests that coexistence of Fe in the intestinal phase plays an important role in reducing Pb bioaccessibility and relative bioavailability.
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