Wei Zhang - Transport and Fate of Microbial Pathogens in Agricultural Settings

Version 1

      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information): Bradford, Scott A., Morales, Verónica L.,   Zhang, Wei, Harvey, Ronald W., Packman, Aaron I., Mohanram,   Arvind, Welty, Claire, Critical Reviews in Environmental   Science and Technology, 2012, 43  (8), pp 775-893

      Abstract: An understanding of the transport and   survival of microbial pathogens (pathogens hereafter) in   agricultural settings is needed to assess the risk of pathogen   contamination to water and food resources, and to develop control   strategies and treatment options. However, many knowledge gaps   still remain in predicting the fate and transport of pathogens in   runoff water, and then through the shallow vadose zone and   groundwater. A number of transport pathways, processes, factors,   and mathematical models often are needed to describe pathogen   fate in agricultural settings. The level of complexity is   dramatically enhanced by soil heterogeneity, as well as by   temporal variability in temperature, water inputs, and pathogen   sources. There is substantial variability in pathogen migration   pathways, leading to changes in the dominant processes that   control pathogen transport over different spatial and temporal   scales. For example, intense rainfall events can generate runoff   and preferential flow that can rapidly transport pathogens.   Pathogens that survive for extended periods of time have a   greatly enhanced probability of remaining viable when subjected   to such rapid-transport events. Conversely, in dry seasons,   pathogen transport depends more strongly on retention at diverse   environmental surfaces controlled by a multitude of coupled   physical, chemical, and microbiological factors. These   interactions are incompletely characterized, leading to a lack of   consensus on the proper mathematical framework to model pathogen   transport even at the column scale. In addition, little is known   about how to quantify transport and survival parameters at the   scale of agricultural fields or watersheds. This review   summarizes current conceptual and quantitative models for   pathogen transport and fate in agricultural settings over a wide   range of spatial and temporal scales. The authors also discuss   the benefits that can be realized by improved modeling, and   potential treatments to mitigate the risk of waterborne disease   transmission.

      Address (URL): http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10643389.2012.710449