Publication Details (including relevant citation information): Isaacson, Carl, Zhang, Wei, Powell, Tremaine, Ma, Xin, Bouchard, Dermont, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2011, 45 (12), pp 5170-5177
Abstract: Little is known about how temporal changes in the physical?chemical properties of C60 aggregates formed in aqueous systems (termed aqu/C60) can impact transport pathways contributing to ecological exposures. In this study three aqu/C60 suspensions of short-term (100 days), intermediate-term (300 days), and long-term (1000 days) water exposure were first characterized for particle size distribution, water/toluene phase distribution, and surface chemistry. Then, aqu/C60 deposition to a model silica surface and transport in porous media were studied by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and saturated sand columns. As suspension time increased, aqu/C60 particle size shifted to a larger size range as determined by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and the aqu/C60 distribution to toluene was reduced, likely due to surface polarization as revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and UV?visible spectroscopy of the aqu/C60 suspensions. Additionally, the deposition to silica surfaces in both QCM and column studies decreased with increased water exposure time. Although a small increase in aqu/C60 aggregate size with time may partially explain the greater transport of the long-term aqu/C60 because of the decreased collector efficiency for larger submicrometer particles, the polarization of the aqu/C60 (thus a more hydrophilic surface) revealed by the toluene/water phase distribution and confirmed by NMR, is considered the determining factor.
Address (URL): http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es1041145