Ralf Haiges - Fluorodinitromethyl- and trinitromethyl-azoles: Green replacements for ammonium perchlorate.

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information): Haiges, Ralf, Christe, Karl O., 21st   Winter Fluorine Conference, American Chemical Society, Division   of Fluorine Chemistry, St. Pete Beach, FL, United States, January   13-18, 2013, pp FLUO-18

      Abstract: In energetic materials research, much   effort has been devoted to the development of environmentally   benign, "green" energetic materials. The most widely used   oxidizer in high performance solid rocket propellant formulations   is ammonium perchlorate (AP). Composite propellants based on AP   are commonly implemented in booster applications (e.g. Ariane 5,   Atlas V, Delta 4 Heavy, LGM-30 Minuteman and aircraft ejection   seats). However, the use of ammonium perchlorate releases large   quantities of HCl into the environment. Because of the   environmental hazards and human toxicity issues assocd. with the   prodn., storage and use of AP, there is great interest in new   environmentally benign and non-toxic high-oxygen carriers that   can serve as drop-in replacements for ammonium perchlorate. We   studied the synthesis and characterization of several   fluoronitroazoles and nitroazoles (e.g. compds. 1-5) and their   conversion into the corresponding azolyl borates and aluminates,   [MH4-n(azole)n]-(M = B, Al; n = 1-4). The low toxicity and   environmentally benign character of boron and aluminum renders   such compds. ideal replacements for AP in propellant   applications. The compds. have been characterized by NMR, IR and   Raman spectroscopy, and, in most cases, by X-ray crystallog. [on   SciFinder(R)]

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