Tag:genetic engineering,recombinant antibody
Research progress of genetic engineering recombinant antibody technology
Experiencing polyclonal antibody technology, hybridoma monoclonal antibody technology, genetic engineering antibody technology is developing very rapidly.More and more extensive applications of it come into use.
In the long process of antibody research,it has developed three generations of different levels of antibody preparation technology.Polyclonal antibodies produced by antigen preparation of higher vertebrates, are known as the first generation of antibody.The monoclonal antibodies synthetised through hybridoma technology are only for specific antigenic determinants,which are known as the second generation of antibody.Application of recombinant DNA technology or gene mutationsmethod can reform some antibodies’ coding sequence to produce antibodies protein molecules originally existed in nature.This method is called genetic engneering antibody,which is namely the third generation of antibody.
Humanization genetic engineering antibody.
The chimeric antibody. A method of reducing the monoclonal antibody immune primary of murine is to link mouse’s immunoglobulin variable region to the corresponding human’s constant Immunoglobulin region.And chimeric antibody is produced.
Humanized antibody.In order to reduce the immunogenicity of chimeric antibodies,and make them more humanized,CDR grafting technique appears.This technology will let human immunoglobulin replace any other regions of immunoglobulin, and retain only the variable region of mouse immunoglobulin CDR part.This is the maximum to reduce the immunogenicity of murine antibody.Antibody produced in this way is called the humanized antibody.
Small molecular antibody.Small molecular antibody has the advantages of small molecular weight, strong permeability, low immunogenicity, short half-life.At present some promising small molecular antibodies are the following.
Single chain antibody.
Phage antibody display technology.In early 1980s,with PCR technology,Fab fragment emerges antibody library based on the method of molecular biology as a result of expression of Escherichia coli and rapid development on the surface of bacteriophage. Among them, the technology of phage antibody library is more superior.
MRNA display technology and ribosome display technology.The key steps of ribosome display technology is to construct ScFv antibody gene library by using molecular biology techniques.And then it transcribes the antibody gene library into mRNA.Expression,translation in vitro of Escherichia coli, and ultimately the antigen is doing affinity screening.In 1997, Roberts designed a method similar to the RD, namely the mRNA display technology.
Transgenic animal technology.In recent years, the rapid development of transgenic animal technology develops rapidly, and its range of application is also getting more and more broad.
Transgenic plant technology.Compared with the methods of mammalian cell lines or transgenic animal to produce antibodies, plant antibody has the advantages of cheap, efficient, safety etc..
Antibody preparation technology has entered a new era in the development process of genetic engineering antibody technology,it can be widely used in many areas of life science, plays an important role in viral diseases, organ transplantation, cancer, autoimmune diseases, toxic disease, allergic disease, etc..