Ebrahim Abouzari-Lotf - Enhance protection of electronic appliances through multivariate modelling and optimization of ceramic core materials in varistor devices

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Dorraj, M., Abdollahi, Y., Mohd Said, S.B., Bin Mohd Sabri, M.F.,   Sairi, N.A., Meng, W.P., Abouzari-Lotf, E. 5 (27)   21384-21395

      Abstract: E-waste comprises discarded low   quality protected electronic appliances that annually accumulate   million tons of hazardous materials in the environment.   Protection is provided to control unwanted voltages that usually   generate in associated electrical circuits by a multi-junction   ceramic in a voltage dependent varistor. The ceramic's   microstructure consists of ZnO grains that are surrounded by the   narrow boundaries of melted specific additives such as Bi2O3,   TiO2 and Sb2O3. In fact, the boundaries manage the quality of   protection through a certain volume of intrinsic oxygen vacancies   transformation which depends on the amounts of the additives.   Since these amounts are the ceramic fabrication's initial input   variables, the optimization process is capable of improving the   quality of the protection (non-linear coefficient) as an output   of the varistor devices. In this work, the fabrication was   designed and then experimentally performed to calculate the   non-linear coefficients of the produced varistors as actual   responses. The responses were used to obtain an appropriate model   for the fabrication by different semi-empirical methods.   Afterward, the models predicted the optimized amounts of the   additives which maximized the quality of the varistors. The   predicted condition was fabricated as final varistors that were   electrically characterized to compare their nonlinear   coefficients as the quality indicator. The comparison   demonstrated that the optimized amounts of Bi2O3 (0.5), TiO2   (0.47) and Sb2O3 (0.21) in mol% provided the very high protective   varistor with nonlinear coefficients of 28.1. In conclusion, the   optimization, which has industrial scale-up potential, warranties   the electronic protection that controls global e-waste. © 2015   The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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