Publication Details (including relevant citation information):
Noda, Isao, Green, Phillip R., Satkowski, Michael M., Schechtman, Lee A. Biomacromolecules 1988 6 (2) 580-586
Abstract: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable aliphatic polyesters, known to be produced by many common microorganisms. Nodax is a recently introduced family of PHA copolymers comprising 3-hydroxybutyrate units and a relatively small amount of other medium chain length 3-hydroxyalkanoate (mcl-3HA) comonomers with side groups of at least three carbon units or more. There are several different grades of copolymers available, depending on the average molecular weight, average mcl-3HA content within the copolymer, and side group chain length of the chosen mcl-3HA unit. PHA copolymers with different mcl-3HA types and contents can be made either by bacterial fermentation or by chemical synthesis. The incorporation of mcl-3HA units into PHAs effectively lowers the crystallinity and Tm in a manner similar to the effect of α-olefins in linear low-density polyethylene. The Tm can be lowered well below the thermal decomposition temperature of PHAs to make this material much easier to process. The reduced crystallinity provides the ductility and toughness required for many practical applications. The mcl-3HA content regulates the Tm and crystallinity of copolymer almost independently of the branch size, as long as more than three carbons are present in the side group. On the other hand, the side group chain length of the mcl-3HA has a profound effect on the flexibility of copolymer.
Address (URL): http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm049472m