Steven Stellman - The epidemiology of breast cancer in 785 United States Caucasian women

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      Wynder, E. L., MacCornack, F. A., Stellman, S. D. 41 (6)   2341-54-

      Abstract: A retrospective case-control hospital   study of 785 Caucasian breast cancer patients and 2,231   age-stratified controls was conducted in New York City from   1969-1975. Patients were grouped by pre- peri- and postmenopausal   status at diagnosis for the analysis to make a distinctive   separation for variables showing a pre- and postmenopausal   differential. Demographic characteristics were similar for cases   and controls. Previously recorded hormone-related risk variables   for this disease were largely confirmed for pre- and   perimenopausal women, i.e., late age at first birth (greater than   25), premenstrual symptoms of breast swelling and premenopausal   chills and flushes. Mother's history of breast cancer was also   found to be a risk variable. Nulliparity was a risk factor only   perimenopausally. No risk was foun for absolute height, weight or   for obesity (Quetelet Index), prior breast diseases or previous   usage of exogenous hormones of any type and no "protective"   effect was found for multiparous women and for nursing.   Perimenopausally diagnosed patients (menopause to 10 years after)   were similar to premenopausally diagnosed women on most risk   factors. Risk variables determined by this and other case-control   studies cannot account for the magnitude of differences in the   international incidence of breast cancer.

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