Steven Stellman - Smoking and lung cancer in women: findings in a prospective study

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      Garfinkel, L., Stellman, S. D. 48 (23) 6951-5-

      Abstract: Lung cancer rates in relation to   smoking habits were studied in a cohort of 619,225 women traced   over a 4-yr period (1982 to 1986). A total of 1,006 lung cancer   deaths was recorded. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for   women smokers was 12.7 for current smokers and 4.8 for exsmokers.   For those women without a history of chronic diseases, the SMR   rose to 17.6 for current smokers. The SMRs rose with the number   of cigarettes smoked per day to 22.0 for women who smoked 31 or   more per day. SMRs also increased with depth of inhalation; this   increase was independent of the number smoked per day. SMRs also   increased by duration of smoking and decreased with cessation of   smoking. Mortality ratios for lung cancer in women ranged from   about 2 to 1 to 3 to 1 in studies carried out in the 1950s and   1960s. As women have begun to smoke earlier in life, smoke more   cigarettes a day, and inhale more deeply, we are now observing   much higher SMRs in women with lung cancer, similar in magnitude   to those seen in men in the earlier studies.

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