Steven Stellman - Doses of nicotine and lung carcinogens delivered to cigarette smokers

Document created by Steven Stellman on Dec 1, 2016
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  Djordjevic, M. V., Stellman, S. D., Zang, E. 92 (2)   106-11-

  Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke yields of   tar and nicotine obtained under the Federal Trade Commission   (FTC)-specified machine-smoking protocol (35-mL puff volume drawn   for 2 seconds once per minute) may not accurately reflect the   delivery of toxins and carcinogens to the smoker. We conducted   this study to obtain more realistic estimates of exposure to   components of cigarette smoke that affect lung cancer risk.   METHODS: We used a pressure transducer system to evaluate puffing   characteristics for 133 smokers of cigarettes rated by the FTC at   1.2 mg of nicotine or less (56 smokers of low-yield cigarettes   [</=0.8 mg of nicotine per cigarette] and 77 smokers of   medium-yield cigarettes [0.9-1.2 mg of nicotine per cigarette]).   We programmed measurements from a randomly chosen subset of 72 of   these smokers into a piston-type machine to generate smoke from   each smoker's usual brand of cigarettes for assays of nicotine,   carbon monoxide, tar, and the lung cancer-causing agents   4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and   benzo[a]pyrene. The FTC protocol was also used to assess levels   of targeted components in the 11 brands most frequently smoked by   study subjects. RESULTS: Compared with the FTC protocol values,   smokers of low- and medium-yield brands took in statistically   significantly larger puffs (48.6 and 44.1 mL, respectively) at   statistically significantly shorter intervals (21.3 and 18.5   seconds, respectively), and they drew larger total smoke volumes   than specified in the FTC parameters. They received,   respectively, 2.5 and 2.2 times more nicotine and 2.6 and 1.9   times more tar than FTC-derived amounts, as well as about twofold   higher levels of benzo[a]pyrene and   4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Smokers of   medium-yield cigarettes compared with smokers of low-yield   cigarettes received higher doses of all components. CONCLUSIONS:   The FTC protocol underestimates nicotine and carcinogen doses to   smokers and overestimates the proportional benefit of low-yield   cigarettes. Thus, FTC-based nicotine medication doses   prescribed/recommended for smoking cessation may need to be   reassessed.

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