Steven Stellman - The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Stellman, J. M., Stellman, S. D., Christian, R., Weber, T.,   Tomasallo, C. 422 (6933) 681-7-

      Abstract: Herbicides including Agent Orange were   sprayed by United States forces for military purposes during the   Vietnam War (1961-1971) at a rate more than an order of magnitude   greater than for similar domestic weed control. In 1974, the US   National Academy of Sciences published estimates of the extent   and distribution of herbicides sprayed. Here we present revised   estimates, developed using more-complete data. The spray   inventory is expanded by more than seven million litres, in   particular with heavily dioxin-contaminated herbicides. Estimates   for the amount of dioxin sprayed are almost doubled. Hamlet   census data reveal that millions of Vietnamese were likely to   have been sprayed upon directly. Our identification of specific   military herbicide targets has led to a more coherent   understanding of spraying. Common errors in earlier   interpretations of the spray data are also discussed.

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