Steven Stellman - Lung cancer risk in white and black Americans

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Stellman, S. D., Chen, Y., Muscat, J. E., Djordjevic, M. V.,   Richie, J. P., Jr., Lazarus, P., Thompson, S., Altorki, N.,   Berwick, M., Citron, M. L., Harlap, S., Kaur, T. B., Neugut, A.   I., Olson, S., Travaline, J. M., Witorsch, P., Zhang, Z. F.   13 (4) 294-302-

      Abstract: PURPOSE: To test whether differences   in smoking-related lung cancer risks in blacks and whites can   explain why lung cancer incidence is greater in black males than   in white males but about equal in black and white females, given   that a greater proportion of blacks are smokers, but smoke far   fewer cigarettes per day than do whites. METHODS: A   hospital-based case-control study was conducted between 1984 and   1998 that included interviews with 1,710 white male and 1,321   white female cases of histologically confirmed lung cancer, 254   black male and 163 black female cases, and 8,151 controls.   Relative risks were estimated via odds ratios using logistic   regression, adjusted for age, education, and body mass index.   RESULTS: We confirmed prior reports that smoking prevalence is   higher but overall dosage is lower among blacks. Overall ORs were   similar for blacks and whites, except among the heaviest smoking   males (21+ cigarettes per day or 37.5 pack-years), in whom ORs   for blacks were considerably greater than for whites. Long-term   benefits of cessation were similar for white and black   ex-smokers. Smokers of menthol flavored cigarettes were at no   greater risk for lung cancer than were smokers of unflavored   brands. CONCLUSIONS: Lung cancer risks were similar for whites   and blacks with similar smoking habits, except possibly for   blacks who were very heavy smokers; this sub-group is unusual in   the general population of African American smokers. Explanations   of racial disparities in lung cancer risk may need to account for   modifying factors including type of cigarette (yield,   mentholation), diet, occupation, and host factors such as ability   to metabolize mainstream smoke carcinogens.

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