Steven Stellman - Racial differences in exposure and glucuronidation of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)

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      Muscat, J. E., Djordjevic, M. V., Colosimo, S., Stellman, S. D.,   Richie, J. P., Jr. 103 (7) 1420-6-

      Abstract: BACKGROUND: In the United States,   Blacks who smoke cigarettes have a higher mean blood   concentration of the nicotine metabolite cotinine than White   smokers. It has not been determined whether there are racial   differences in the exposure to the cigarette smoke carcinogen   4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and in the   detoxification of NNK metabolites. METHODS: A community-based   cross-sectional survey of 69 Black and 93 White smokers was   conducted in lower Westchester County, New York. Information on   smoking and lifestyle habits was collected and urinary   concentrations of several tobacco smoke biomarkers were compared,   including the NNK metabolite   4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its   glucuronide (NNAL-Gluc). A frequency histogram and probit plot of   NNAL-Gluc:NNAL ratios were constructed to determine slow and   rapid glucuronidation phenotypes. RESULTS: The mean   concentrations of total NNAL, urinary cotinine, plasma cotinine,   and thiocyanate were significantly higher in Black men than in   White men for each cigarette smoked. In women, the only biomarker   that was significantly elevated in Blacks was plasma cotinine. A   higher proportion of White versus Black women was categorized as   "rapid" glucuronidators (two-tailed exact test, P = 0.03). In   men, there were no significant differences in NNAL-Gluc:NNAL   phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The higher rates of lung carcinoma in   black men may be due in part to a higher level of exposure to   tobacco smoke carcinogens.

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