Steven Stellman - Effect of delivered dosage of cigarette smoke toxins on the levels of urinary biomarkers of exposure

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Melikian, A. A., Djordjevic, M. V., Chen, S., Richie, J., Jr.,   Stellman, S. D. 16 (7) 1408-15-

      Abstract: Urinary metabolites of tobacco smoke   toxins are often used as biomarkers for the evaluation of active   and passive exposure to cigarette smoke toxins. In a study of   healthy smokers, we investigated concentrations of urinary   biomarkers in relation to concentrations of selected toxins in   mainstream cigarette smoke as determined by machine smoking of   cigarettes in a manner that mimics an individual's smoking   behavior (topography). Concentrations of nicotine,   4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, and   benzo(a)pyrene, in mainstream smoke determined under human   smoking conditions, and their urinary metabolites cotinine,   4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol, and   1-hydroxypyrene were established for 257 individuals who smoked   low-yield (0.1-0.8 mg Federal Trade Commission   nicotine/cigarette; mean, 0.66; n = 87), medium-yield (0.9-1.2 mg   nicotine/cigarette; mean, 1.1; n = 109), and high-yield   cigarettes (nicotine, >1.3 mg nicotine/cigarette; mean, 1.41;   n = 61). Levels of urinary metabolites expressed per unit of   delivered parent compounds decreased with increased smoke   emissions. In smokers of low-, medium-, and high-yield   cigarettes, the respective cotinine (ng/mg   creatinine)-to-nicotine (mg/d) ratios were 89.4, 77.8, and 57.1   (low versus high; P = 0.06); the   4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (pmol/mg   creatinine)-to-4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone   (ng/d) ratios were 0.81, 0.55, and 0.57 (low versus high; P =   0.05); and the 1-hydroxypyrene (pg/mg   creatinine)-to-benzo(a)pyrene (ng/d) ratios were 1.55, 1.13, and   0.97 (low versus high; P = 0.008). Similarly, means of cotinine   per unit of delivered nicotine in smokers who consumed <20   cigarettes per day was 3.5-fold higher than in those who smoked   >20 cigarettes per day. Likewise, a negative correlation was   observed between cotinine-to-nicotine ratios and delivered doses   of nicotine in subgroups of smokers who used the identical brand   of cigarette, namely a filter tip-vented Marlboro (r = -0.59),   which is a popular brand among Euro-Americans, and Newport (r =   -0.37), a menthol-flavored cigarette without filter tip vents   that is preferred by African-Americans. Thus, the intensity of   the exposures significantly affects the levels of urinary   biomarkers of exposure and should be taken into account in the   evaluation of human exposure to cigarette smoke toxins.

      Address (URL): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17627005