Steven Stellman - Effect of delivered dosage of cigarette smoke toxins on the levels of urinary biomarkers of exposure

Document created by Steven Stellman on Dec 1, 2016
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  Melikian, A. A., Djordjevic, M. V., Chen, S., Richie, J., Jr.,   Stellman, S. D. 16 (7) 1408-15-

  Abstract: Urinary metabolites of tobacco smoke   toxins are often used as biomarkers for the evaluation of active   and passive exposure to cigarette smoke toxins. In a study of   healthy smokers, we investigated concentrations of urinary   biomarkers in relation to concentrations of selected toxins in   mainstream cigarette smoke as determined by machine smoking of   cigarettes in a manner that mimics an individual's smoking   behavior (topography). Concentrations of nicotine,   4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, and   benzo(a)pyrene, in mainstream smoke determined under human   smoking conditions, and their urinary metabolites cotinine,   4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol, and   1-hydroxypyrene were established for 257 individuals who smoked   low-yield (0.1-0.8 mg Federal Trade Commission   nicotine/cigarette; mean, 0.66; n = 87), medium-yield (0.9-1.2 mg   nicotine/cigarette; mean, 1.1; n = 109), and high-yield   cigarettes (nicotine, >1.3 mg nicotine/cigarette; mean, 1.41;   n = 61). Levels of urinary metabolites expressed per unit of   delivered parent compounds decreased with increased smoke   emissions. In smokers of low-, medium-, and high-yield   cigarettes, the respective cotinine (ng/mg   creatinine)-to-nicotine (mg/d) ratios were 89.4, 77.8, and 57.1   (low versus high; P = 0.06); the   4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (pmol/mg   creatinine)-to-4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone   (ng/d) ratios were 0.81, 0.55, and 0.57 (low versus high; P =   0.05); and the 1-hydroxypyrene (pg/mg   creatinine)-to-benzo(a)pyrene (ng/d) ratios were 1.55, 1.13, and   0.97 (low versus high; P = 0.008). Similarly, means of cotinine   per unit of delivered nicotine in smokers who consumed <20   cigarettes per day was 3.5-fold higher than in those who smoked   >20 cigarettes per day. Likewise, a negative correlation was   observed between cotinine-to-nicotine ratios and delivered doses   of nicotine in subgroups of smokers who used the identical brand   of cigarette, namely a filter tip-vented Marlboro (r = -0.59),   which is a popular brand among Euro-Americans, and Newport (r =   -0.37), a menthol-flavored cigarette without filter tip vents   that is preferred by African-Americans. Thus, the intensity of   the exposures significantly affects the levels of urinary   biomarkers of exposure and should be taken into account in the   evaluation of human exposure to cigarette smoke toxins.

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