Steven Stellman - Gender differences relative to smoking behavior and emissions of toxins from mainstream cigarette smoke

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Melikian, A. A., Djordjevic, M. V., Hosey, J., Zhang, J., Chen,   S., Zang, E., Muscat, J., Stellman, S. D. 9 (3) 377-87-

      Abstract: This study examined whether gender   differences exist in the exposure to select mainstream cigarette   smoke toxins as a result of differences in smoking behavior or   type of cigarettes smoked among 129 female and 128 male smokers.   Smoking topography data indicated that, compared with men, women   took smaller puffs (37.6 ml/puff vs. 45.8 ml/puff; p = .0001) of   shorter duration (1.33 s/puff vs. 1.48 s/puff; p = .002) but drew   more puffs per cigarette (13.5 vs. 12.0; p = .001) and left   longer butts (36.3 mm or 40.2% of cigarette length vs. 34.3 mm or   39.2% of cigarette length; p = .01). These trends were similar in   both African Americans and European Americans. The emissions of   select toxins per cigarette, as determined by mimicking human   smoking behaviors were greater among the male smokers than the   female smokers and correlated significantly with delivered smoke   volume per cigarette. The geometric means of emissions of   nicotine from cigarettes were 1.92 mg/cigarette (95% CI =   1.80-2.05) for women versus 2.20 (95% CI = 2.04-2.37) for men (p   = .005). Cigarettes smoked by women yielded 139.5 ng/cigarette of   4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK; 95% CI =   128.8-151.0), compared with 170.3 ng/cigarette (95% CI =   156.3-185.6) for men (p = .0007); benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) emissions   were 18.0 ng/cigarette (95% CI = 17.0-19.0) for women and 20.5   ng/cigarette (95% CI = 18.8-22.3) for men (p = .01). The gender   differences with regard to cigarette smoke yields of toxins were   more profound in European Americans than in African Americans. On   average, African American men's smoking habits produced the   highest emissions of select toxins from cigarettes, and European   American female smokers had the lowest exposure to carcinogens   and toxins. Several studies have suggested that women may be more   susceptible than men to the ill effects of carcinogens in tobacco   and tobacco smoke, whereas other studies have not found   differences in lung cancer risk between men and women. The   present study suggests that gender differences in exposure to   tobacco smoke cannot account for a higher rate of lung cancer in   female smokers compared with male smokers.

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