Steven Stellman - Airborne emissions from 1961 to 2004 of benzo[a]pyrene from U.S. vehicles per km of travel based on tunnel studies

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Beyea, J., Stellman, S. D., Hatch, M., Gammon, M. D. 42  (19) 7315-20-

      Abstract: We identified 13 historical   measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in U.S.   vehicular traffic tunnels that were either directly presented as   tailpipe emission factors in microg per vehicle-kilometer or   convertible to such a form. Tunnel measurements capture fleet   cruise emissions. Emission factors for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) for a   tunnel fleet operating under cruise conditions were highest prior   to the 1980s and fell from more than 30-microg per vehicle-km to   approximately 2-microg/km in the 1990s, an approximately 15-fold   decline. Total annual U.S. (cruise) emissions of BaP dropped by a   lesser factor, because total annual km driven increased by a   factor of 2.7 during the period. Other PAH compounds measured in   tunnels over the 40-year period (e.g., benzo[ghi]perylene,   coronene) showed comparable reduction factors in emissions. PAH   declines were comparable to those measured in tunnels for carbon   monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate organic   carbon. The historical PAH "source terms" determined from the   data are relevant to quantifying the benefits of emissions   control technology and can be used in epidemiological studies   evaluating the health effects of exposure, such as those   undertaken with breast cancer in New York State.

      Address (URL): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18939564