Steven Stellman - Effects of menthol on tobacco smoke exposure, nicotine dependence, and NNAL glucuronidation

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Muscat, J. E., Chen, G., Knipe, A., Stellman, S. D., Lazarus, P.,   Richie, J. P., Jr. 18 (1) 35-41-

      Abstract: Menthol is a controversial cigarette   additive because its physiologic or pharmacologic effects may   possibly increase the risk for cancer and its targeted market is   the Black community. In a community-based cross-sectional study   on 525 Black and White volunteers, we compared levels of urinary   and plasma cotinine, plasma thiocyanate, urinary   4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and its   detoxified form (NNAL-Gluc) between menthol and nonmenthol   smokers. In regression models that adjusted for daily cigarette   intake, no significant differences were observed in the   concentration of these biomarkers by menthol status in both   races. There was no significant association between high   Fagerstrom nicotine dependence scores and the use of menthol   cigarettes (odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-2.0),   but an increased risk was observed with smoking a cigarette soon   (< 0.01) and 22% lower in Blacks. In subsequent human liver   microsome studies, menthol inhibited the rate of   NNAL-O-glucuronidation and NNAL-N-glucuronidation. Collectively,   these results show that menthol does not affect biological   exposure to tobacco smoke constituents but indicates that menthol   might inhibit the detoxification of the potent lung carcinogen   NNAL.

      Address (URL): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19124478