Steven Stellman - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Hurricane Sandy among Persons Exposed to the 9/11 Disaster

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Caramanica, K., Brackbill, R. M., Stellman, S. D., Farfel, M. R.   17 (1) 356-362-

      Abstract: BACKGROUND: Traumatic exposure during   a hurricane is associated with adverse mental health conditions   post-event. The World Trade Center Health Registry provided a   sampling pool for a rapid survey of persons directly affected by   Hurricane Sandy in the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area in   late October 2012. This study evaluated the relationship between   Sandy experiences and Sandy-related posttraumatic stress disorder   (PTSD) among individuals previously exposed to the September 11,   2001 (9/11) disaster. METHODS: A total of 4,558 surveys were   completed from April 10-November 7, 2013. After exclusions for   missing data, the final sample included 2,214 (53.5%) respondents   from FEMA-defined inundation zones and 1,923 (46.5%) from   non-inundation zones. Sandy exposures included witnessing   terrible events, Sandy-related injury, fearing for own life or   safety of others, evacuation, living in a home that was flooded   or damaged, property loss, and financial loss. Sandy-related PTSD   was defined as a score of >/=44 on a Sandy-specific PTSD   Checklist. RESULTS: PTSD prevalence was higher in the inundation   zones (11.3%) and lower in the non-inundation zones (4.4%). The   highest prevalence of Sandy-related PTSD was among individuals in   the inundation zone who sustained an injury (31.2%), reported a   history of 9/11-related PTSD (28.8%), or had low social support   prior to the event (28.6%). In the inundation zones,   significantly elevated adjusted odds of Sandy-related PTSD were   observed among persons with a prior history of 9/11-related PTSD,   low social support, and those who experienced a greater number of   Sandy traumatic events. CONCLUSIONS: Sandy-related stress   symptoms indicative of PTSD affected a significant proportion of   persons who lived in flooded areas of the NYC metropolitan area.   Prior 9/11-related PTSD increased the likelihood of Sandy-related   PTSD, while social support was protective. Public health   preparation for events similar to Sandy should incorporate   outreach and linkages to care for persons with prior   disaster-related trauma.

      Address (URL): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25960693