Steven Stellman - Longitudinal mental health impact among police responders to the 9/11 terrorist attack

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      Bowler, R. M., Harris, M., Li, J., Gocheva, V., Stellman, S. D.,   Wilson, K., Alper, H., Schwarzer, R., Cone, J. E. 55 (4)   297-312-

      Abstract: BACKGROUND: Among police responders   enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry (WTCHR),   Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was almost twice as   prevalent among women as men 2-3 years after the 9/11 attacks.   METHODS: Police participants in the WTCHR Wave 1 survey 2-3 years   after 9/11/01, were reassessed for probable PTSD at Wave 2, 5-6   years after 9/11/01, using PCL DSM-IV criteria. RESULTS: Police   participants in the Wave 2 survey included 2,527 men, 413 women.   The prevalence of "Probable PTSD" was 7.8% at Wave 1 and 16.5% at   Wave 2. Mean PCL scores increased from 25.1 to 29.9 for men and   28.6 to 32.2 for women. Prevalence of PTSD was higher for women   than for men at Wave 1 (chi(2) = 10.882, P = 0.002), but not Wave   2 (chi(2) = 2.416, P = 0.133). Other risk factors included losing   one's job after 9/11 and being disabled. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence   of probable PTSD among police doubled between 2003-2004 and   2006-2007. After the 2-year time span, the gender difference was   no longer significant; prevalence of PTSD symptoms increased and   there was a substantial amount of co-morbidity with other mental   health problems. Further development of prevention and   intervention strategies for police responders with symptoms of   PTSD is needed. The observed upward trend in PCL scores over time   in police officers with PCL scores less than 44, suggests that   PTSD prevention and intervention strategies should be applied to   all police affected by the 9/11 attacks, not limited just to   those with PTSD symptoms.

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