Steven Stellman - Menthol smoking in relation to time to first cigarette and cotinine: results from a community-based study

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Muscat, J. E., Liu, H. P., Stellman, S. D., Richie, J. P., Jr.   63 (1) 166-70-

      Abstract: Smokers who have their first cigarette   shortly after waking, an indicator of nicotine dependence, have   substantially higher cotinine levels. There is controversy   regarding the role of menthol in nicotine dependence. We   hypothesized that menthol smokers have a shorter time to first   cigarette (TTFC), and tested whether any statistical association   actually reflects increased dependence by measuring nicotine   uptake (e.g. cotinine) in the same group of smokers. A   cross-sectional community-based study was conducted that included   495 black and white daily cigarette smokers. Results showed a   trend between menthol smoking and a shorter TTFC (P < 0.04 in   blacks). Menthol was not an independent predictor of cotinine or   an effect modifier with TTFC on cotinine levels in blacks and   whites. These results show that while menthol in tobacco is   associated with an indicator of nicotine dependence in blacks,   menthol was not associated with biological uptake of nicotine in   black and white smokers.

      Address (URL): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22487419