Steven Stellman - Comorbidity of 9/11-Related PTSD and Depression in the World Trade Center Health Registry 10-11 Years Postdisaster

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Caramanica, K., Brackbill, R. M., Liao, T., Stellman, S. D.   27 (6) 680-8-

      Abstract: Many studies report elevated   prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression   among persons exposed to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) disaster   compared to those unexposed; few have evaluated long-term PTSD   with comorbid depression. We examined prevalence and risk factors   for probable PTSD, probable depression, and both conditions 10-11   years post-9/11 among 29,486 World Trade Center Health Registry   enrollees who completed surveys at Wave 1 (2003-2004), Wave 2   (2006-2007), and Wave 3 (2011-2012). Enrollees reporting   physician diagnosed pre-9/11 PTSD or depression were excluded.   PTSD was defined as scoring >/= 44 on the PTSD Checklist and   depression as scoring >/= 10 on the 8-item Patient Health   Questionnaire. We examined 4 groups: comorbid PTSD and   depression, PTSD only, depression only, and neither. Among   enrollees, 15.2% reported symptoms indicative of PTSD at Wave 3,   14.9% of depression, and 10.1% of both. Comorbid PTSD and   depression was associated with high 9/11 exposures, low social   integration, health-related unemployment, and experiencing >/=   1 traumatic life event post-9/11. Comorbid persons experienced   poorer outcomes on all PTSD-related impairment measures, life   satisfaction, overall health, and unmet mental health care need   compared to those with only a single condition. These findings   highlight the importance of ongoing screening and treatment for   both conditions, particularly among those at risk for mental   health comorbidity.

      Address (URL): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25470556