Eelco Vogt - Fluid catalytic cracking: recent developments on the grand old lady of zeolite catalysis

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      Vogt, E.T.C., Weckhuysen, B.M., Chem. Soc.   Rev., 44, 7342-7370,   2015


        Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the major conversion   technologies in the oil refinery industry. FCC currently produces   the majority of the world's gasoline, as well as an important   fraction of propylene for the polymer industry. In this critical   review, we give an overview of the latest trends in this field of   research. These trends include ways to make it possible to   process either very heavy or very light crude oil fractions as   well as to co-process biomass-based oxygenates with regular crude   oil fractions, and convert these more complex feedstocks in an   increasing amount of propylene and diesel-range fuels. After   providing some general background of the FCC process, including a   short history as well as details on the process, reactor design,   chemical reactions involved and catalyst material, we will   discuss several trends in FCC catalysis research by focusing on   ways to improve the zeolite structure stability, propylene   selectivity and the overall catalyst accessibility by (a) the   addition of rare earth elements and phosphorus, (b) constructing   hierarchical pores systems and (c) the introduction of new   zeolite structures. In addition, we present an overview of the   state-of-the-art micro-spectroscopy methods for characterizing   FCC catalysts at the single particle level. These new   characterization tools are able to explain the influence of the   harsh FCC processing conditions (e.g. steam) and the presence of   various metal poisons (e.g. V, Fe and Ni) in the crude oil   feedstocks on the 3-D structure and accessibility of FCC catalyst   materials.

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