Jean-Claude Bunzli - Lanthanides

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      Publication Details (including relevant citation   information):

      B nzli,J.-C.G. 2013 (2013) 1-43

      Abstract: Lanthanide elements (Ln: La-Lu; 57-71)   belong to the rare-earth series of elements (Sc, Y, and Ln). They   present specific chemical, optical, and magnetic properties that   are a consequence of their peculiar electronic structure.   Although used in small quantities (about 120,000 tons equivalent   rare-earth oxides per year worldwide), they have become essential   to almost all aspects of modern life, being the active cores in   catalysts for oil cracking, lighting devices, high coercivity   magnets used in motorization (electric cars, wind turbines, hard   disk drives) or audio applications, lasers and   telecommunications, biomedical analyses and imaging, and   agriculture. They are classified as strategic materials by the   military and several governments. This article describes the   resources, mining, processing, commercial aspects, physical and   chemical properties, as well as all aspects of applications of   these elements and their compounds.

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