Publication Details (including relevant citation information):
B nzli,J.-C.G. 2013 (2013) 1-43
Abstract: Lanthanide elements (Ln: La-Lu; 57-71) belong to the rare-earth series of elements (Sc, Y, and Ln). They present specific chemical, optical, and magnetic properties that are a consequence of their peculiar electronic structure. Although used in small quantities (about 120,000 tons equivalent rare-earth oxides per year worldwide), they have become essential to almost all aspects of modern life, being the active cores in catalysts for oil cracking, lighting devices, high coercivity magnets used in motorization (electric cars, wind turbines, hard disk drives) or audio applications, lasers and telecommunications, biomedical analyses and imaging, and agriculture. They are classified as strategic materials by the military and several governments. This article describes the resources, mining, processing, commercial aspects, physical and chemical properties, as well as all aspects of applications of these elements and their compounds.