Nanomaterials: Industrial & Medical Applications
Saturday, June 2, 2018
F. Bou-Abdallah, Organizer
M. R. Hepel, Organizer, Presiding
7:30 . Big health advances with small materials: 20 years of commercializing medical devices using nanotechnology. T. Webster
8:20 . Bio-inspired nanomedecine, just a magic bullet? F. Fay
8:55 . Nanocarrier-based targeted drug delivery system for anticancer drugs. K. Kurzatkowska, M.R. Hepel
NENM 46:Big health advances with small materials: 20 years of commercializing medical devices using nanotechnology
Featured Speaker: Thomas Webster, firstname.lastname@example.org. Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
There is an acute shortage of organs due to disease, trauma, congenital defects, and most importantly, age related maladies. The synthetic materials used in tissue engineering applications today are typically composed of millimeter or micron sized particles and/or fiber dimensions. Although human cells are on the micron scale, their individual components, e.g. proteins, are composed of nanometer features. By modifying only the nanofeatures on material surfaces without changing surface chemistry, it is possible to increase tissue growth of any human tissue by controlling the endogenous adsorption of adhesive proteins onto the material surface. In addition, our group has shown that these same nanofeatures and nano-modifications can reduce bacterial growth without using antibiotics, which may further accelerate the growth of antibiotic resistant microbes. Inflammation can also be decreased through the use of nanomaterials. Finally, nanomedicine has been shown to stimulate the growth and differentiation of stem cells, which may someday be used to treat incurable disorders, such as neural damage. This strategy also accelerates FDA approval and commercialization efforts since new chemistries are not proposed, rather chemistries already approved by the FDA with altered nanoscale features. This invited talk will highlight some of the advancements and emphasize current nanomaterials approved by the FDA for human implantation. Moreover, it will emphasize the need for implantable nano-sensors as well as green nanomedicine approaches to avoid toxicity concerns synthesizing nanoparticles.
NENM 47:Bio-inspired nanomedecine, just a magic bullet?
Francois Fay, email@example.com. Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Science, York College - The City University of New York, Jamaica, New York, United States
Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems were first designed as inert capsules whose main roles were to protect therapeutic molecules from the external environment. The encapsulation of various drugs in stealth nanocariers has shown to significantly increase their bioavailability and passive accumulation at the sites of disease. A second generation of nanoparticles was later developed by conjugating targeting ligands, such as peptides, antibodies or aptamers on the surface of the particles. Those functionalized nanoparticles have demonstrated promising active cell-specific delivery capabilities through binding distinctive surface receptors expressed by targeted cells.
In the last few years, two new bioinspired strategies have started to attract much attention from various groups including us. The first concept focuses on environment-sensitive nanoparticles that can undergo structural modifications once they reach the site of disease, maximizing the advantages of both passive and active targeting strategies. A second approach consists in producing nanoparticles that mimic biological patterns present on cells, bacteria or lipoproteins. In vitro and in vivo assays have demonstrated that these bio-inspired nanoparticles can not only actively target immune or cancer cells, they are also able to interact with specific cell receptors and activate intracellular mechanisms such as anti-inflammatory responses or apoptosis. Therefore, I believe that nanoparticles should not be considered only as drug delivery systems anymore, but as active components of the therapeutic strategy.
NENM 48: Nanocarrier-based targeted drug delivery system for anticancer drugs
Katarzyna Kurzatkowska1,2, firstname.lastname@example.org, Maria R. Hepel1. (1) Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Potsdam, Potsdam, New York, United States (2) Department of Biosensors, Polish Academy of Sciences, Olsztyn, Poland
Cancer is a complex and difficult to cure disease with the number of cases continuously increasing all over the world despite of considerable improvements in prophylaxis and treatment. The most developed cancer treatment method is chemotherapy. However, the use of highly toxic chemotherapeutic agents leads to serious damage to healthy cells and severe side effects. To address these problems, controlled drug-delivery systems (CDDS) have been designed for a number of drug-carrier platforms including synthetic (polymers, micelles, silica), natural (lipids, proteins, oligosaccharides), and inorganic (magnetic and plasmonic) nanoparticle nanocarriers. To increase the nanocarrier capacity for drug carrying ability, several modifications to the form of nanocarriers have been proposed, including mesoporous materials, nanocages, encapsulation, and nanostars with expanded surface area. The targeting of cancer cells has been pursuit to mitigate damage to healthy cells and severe side effects. Herein, we report on the development of a CDDS for targeted delivery of anthracycline anticancer drugs and their protection in systemic delivery in nanocage-type nanocarriers. Anthracyclines are a class of drugs used for treatment of many cancers, including leukemias, lymphomas, breast, stomach, uterine, ovarian, bladder cancer, and lung cancers. Their main adverse effect is cardiotoxicity which considerably limits their usefulness. The nanocarrier delivery of the drug enables to safely increase the drug exposure to kill cancer cells. The pH-dependent anthracycline release was monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy. We have also investigated plasmonic nanocarriers enabling a diverse functionalization and convenient monitoring. We have modified plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for targeted delivery of gemcitabine anti-cancer drug (GEM) for the treatment of breast cancer and advanced pancreatic cancer with high mortality rate. We have demonstrated the pH-dependent GEM release using surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy (SERS). Further in vitro studies with model triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 have corroborated the utility of the proposed nanocarrier method allowing the administration of high drug doses to targeted cancer cells.