Being immortal is a pursuit that can be traced back to millenniums ago. So far, although scientists have done a lot of researches in the field of aging, the mechanism of aging still haven’t been made clear. It was hoped that one day the causes of aging can be clarified and anti-agingstrategies are proposed.
Mechanisms of aging
So what are the mechanisms that possibly cause aging? In recent years, scientists have conducted a large number of researches in related fields. In a report published in the international journal Nature Structural & Molecular Biology in 2013, scientists from the University of Heidelberg have studied the biological processes occurring at the end of chromatin. An important molecular mechanism for cell senescence has been opened. In the article, the researchers focused on an in-depth study of a structure called telomere. The researchers pointed out that the experimental method was used to change the amount of RNA-DNA hybrid molecules at the end of the chromosome. It can accelerate or reduce the rate of cell senescence, and relevant research results provide some ideas for the development of cell aging-related organ failure and tissue loss techniques.
A study published in the April 2017 issue of Cell magazine pointed out that there is a relationship between insulin receptors and aging. The researchers found that mice with inactivated insulin receptors have longer lifespan than wild-type mice. CHIP protein plays an important role in it. By ubiquitinating the insulin receptor, CHIP can promote the recovery and degradation of the receptor, and finally produce anti-aging activity. In the same month, researchers at McMaster University in Canada found that intestinal microbes can cause aging-related inflammation and premature death in mice; imbalance of intestinal microflora in aged mice may lead to intestinal leakage, and the release of bacterial products that cause inflammation in the body, thereby impairing immune function and reducing longevity. In a research report published in the journal Cell Reports in August 2017, the researchers used C. elegans as a model organism to study, and they placed a one-day-old nematode under ultraviolet light to damage its DNA. Young nematodes have shown strikingly similar phenotypes to older nematodes, and studies have shown that DNA damage can lead to rapid aging of nematodes.
In July 2018, a new study published in the journal Scientific Reports showed that cells of women with multiple pregnancies may be more susceptible to aging, and researchers point out that every pregnancycauses a woman's cell to age 0.5-2 years. And women who are pregnant are getting younger than expected. By reviewing historical records and epidemiological records, the authors found that women with multiple children lived shorter lives than other women and had different types of diseases. In a study published in the August issue of the international magazine Science, researchers from Iceland and the United States conducted a special serum survey through research, and found multiple protein networks that can participate in the body's aging process. It provides new clues to clarify the molecular mechanism of aging.
Scientists have clarified the molecular mechanisms that cause aging in the body through a lot of researches, so how to effectively prevent or slow down the body aging? Researchers from Columbia University in the United States in 2015 found that long-term follow-up of Mediterranean-style eating habits can prevent brain atrophy and limit brain aging. In a report published in the November 2017 issue of Food Chemistry, the researchers found that the high levels of antioxidants contained in mushrooms - ergothione and glutathione - can help fight aging and promote health.
In a study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine in the same month, scientists from the Glastone Institute found that targeting the anti-aging protein SIRT1 is expected to rejuvenate immune cells. The researchers noted that an understanding of the important role of SIRT1 played in T cell aging is expected to help identify two potential new drug targets that will help develop new drugs and enhance SIRT1 activity, allowing mature cytotoxic T cells to rejuvenate or prevent them from entering a higher toxicity state too fast. In a study published in the journal Nature in January 2018, scientists from institutions such as Wenzhou Medical University in China analyzed the molecular structure of a protein called α-Klotho, and the researchers also clarified how the protein helps deliver a hormone signal that delays aging. In the article, the researchers clarified how α-Klotho protein can help FGF23 mediate its anti-aging effects.
Many researchers have found that lifelong regular exercise may be the easiest way to stay young and delay aging. In addition, exercise can effectively slow down the body's aging process. In April 2018, scientists at the Chinese Academy of Sciences found that low doses of metformin can delay the aging process of normal human cells by up-regulating the expression of endoplasmic reticulum glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPx7). It provides new potential targets and new ideas for intervening human aging. In the same month, researchers from the United States confirmed that reducing calorie intake by 15% within two years can effectively delay the body's aging and metabolism, and prevent age-related diseases. In a study published in the journal Scientific Reports in July 2018, scientists from the United States found that the Na/K-ATPase oxidative amplification loop (NAKL) may be closely involved in the process of aging, and is possibly a target for anti-aging interventions. Relevant research results may help researchers develop new anti-aging therapies. In August 2018, researchers pointed out that drug treatment can reverse the trend of human cell aging. In this paper, researchers use drugs targeting mitochondria to stimulate vascular endothelial cells cultured in laboratory environments. The results showed that drug treatment reduced the degree of aging by 50%. In addition, the researchers also found that two intracellular cleavage factors have an important influence on the aging process of endothelial cells.
Although a large number of researches have been carried out in the field of aging and anti-aging, researchers believe that they need to keep investing more in the later stages to clarify the molecular mechanism that induces aging, and develop new strategies accordingly for humans to stay young.
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