In this randomized, double-blind controlled study we compared the effect of parenteralnutrition with two different amino acid solutions on the plasma concentration of amino acids in 27 patients with acute renal failure. Fourteen patients received the new dipeptide-containing (glycyl-tyrosine) amino acid solution (AADI) in combination with glucose (60%) and fat (10%) as an ‘all-in-one’ solution over 120 h continuously via a central venous catheter. In the control group (AAST), parenteral nutrition with a standard amino acid solution in isonitrogenous and isocaloric form (0.7 g amino acids/kg BW/day and 25 kcal/kg BW/day) was administered to 13 patients over the same period of time. The administration of the dipeptide-containing amino acid solution caused a return to within the normal range of most of the amino acid concentrations which were decreased at the onset. A significant difference could be found between the AADI and AAST group for the achieved plasma concentrations of threonine (P < 0.01), phenylalanine (P<0.05), isoleucine (P<0.05), tryptophan (P<0.01) and ornithine (P<0.05), The phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio, did not change in the AADI group, while a marked increase was observed in the AAST group. (152.7 ± 23.5 – 159.8 ± 37.6 vs 172.6 ± 24.6 – 310.6 ± 136.7, respectively). The plasma concentration of glycyl-tyrosine was at the limit of detectability indicating rapid hydrolysis of the dipeptide in acute renal failure. These data suggest that the new dipeptide-containing amino acid solution offers a clear advantage over a standard amino acid formulation in correcting the amino acid imbalances in plasma of patients with ARF and is able to maintain normal tyrosine concentrations and phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio.