John Garner

Block PEG-PLGA and Maleimide-PEG-PLGA investigated for treatment of periodontitis

Blog Post created by John Garner on Oct 28, 2015

PolySciTech division of Akina, Inc. ( provides a wide array of biodegradable block copolymers including mPEG-PLA and Mal-PEG-PLA. Recently researchers used these types of polymers to generate RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid a general binding domain for many cell types) decorated nanoparticles for delivery of minocycline to bacteria for treatment of periodontal infection. Read more: Yao, Wenxin, Peicheng Xu, Jingjing Zhao, Li Ling, Xiaoxia Li, Bo Zhang, Nengneng Cheng, and Zhiqing Pang. "RGD functionalized polymeric nanoparticles targeting periodontitis epithelial cells for the enhanced treatment of periodontitis in dogs." Journal of colloid and interface science 458 (2015): 14-21. (

  “Abstract: Long term retention of antimicrobials with effective drug concentration in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is of vital importance for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. In this study, a novel epithelial cell-targeting nanoparticle drug delivery system by conjugating minocycline-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(lactic acid) (PEG–PLA) nanoparticles (NP-MIN) with RGD peptide were developed and administrated locally for targeting periodontitis epithelial cells and enhancing the treatment of periodontitis in dogs. Biodegradable NP-MIN was made with an emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. RGD peptide was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles via Maleimide group reaction with hydrosulfide in RGD peptide (RGD-NP-MIN). Transmission electron microscopy examination and dynamic light scattering results revealed that RGD-NP-MIN had a sphere shape, with a mean diameter around 106 nm. In vitro release of minocycline from RGD-NP-MIN showed that RGD modification did not change the remarkable sustained releasing characteristic of NP-MIN. To elucidate the interaction of RGD-NP and epithelial cells, RGD-NP binding, uptake and cellular internalization mechanisms by calu-3 cells were investigated. It was shown RGD modification significantly enhanced nanoparticles binding and uptake by Calu-3 cells, and RGD-NP uptake was an energy-dependent process through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Both clathrin-associated endocytosis and caveolae-dependent endocytosis pathway were involved in the RGD-NP uptake, and the intracellular transport of RGD-NP was related to lysosome and Golgi apparatus. Finally, in vivo pharmacokinetics of minocycline in the periodontal pockets and anti-periodontitis effects of RGD-NP-MIN on periodontitis-bearing dogs were evaluated. After local administration of RGD-NP-MIN, minocycline concentration in gingival crevicular fluid decreased slowly and maintained an effective drug concentration for a longer time than that of NP-MIN. Anti-periodontitis effects demonstrated that RGD-NP-MIN could significantly decrease symptoms of periodontitis, which was better than any other control group. These findings suggested that these epithelial cell-targeting nanoparticles offered a novel and effective local delivery system for the treatment of periodontitis. Keywords: RGD peptide; Polymeric nanoparticles; Targeting periodontitis epithelial cells; Minocycline; Local delivery”

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