John Garner

PLGA from PolySciTech used in development of nanoparticle vaccine delivery system to prevent Johne’s disease in cattle

Blog Post created by John Garner on Apr 24, 2019

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In addition to human applications, PLGA from PolySciTech is also used in veterinary uses. Johne’s disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, is a contagious, chronic, and usually fatal infection that affects primarily the small intestine of ruminants. Killing this bacteria is difficult and this contagious disease can spread rapidly through a herd with devastating financial effects to farmers as well as reducing the overall food supply. Recently, researchers at Washington State University, US Department of Agriculture, Alexandria University (Egypt), Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture, and Inje University (Korea) utilized PLGA (AP054) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to create vaccine-loaded nanoparticles for prevention of Johne’s disease. This research holds promise to prevent this rapidly spreading and fatal disease from affecting cattle and improve food sustainability and security. Read more: Abdellrazeq, Gaber S., Mahmoud M. Elnaggar, John P. Bannantine, David A. Schneider, Cleverson D. Souza, Julianne Hwang, Asmaa HA Mahmoud et al. "A peptide-based vaccine for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis." Vaccine (2019). https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X19305043

“Highlights: A M. a. sbsp. paratuberculosis membrane protein elicits CD8 T cells that kill intracellular Map. Incorporation of MMP into a nanoparticle (NP) vector enhances intracellular killing of Map. Intracellular killing of M. a. sbsp. paratuberculosis is mediated by CD8 T cells.Abstract: Recent efforts to develop a live attenuated vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD), revealed relA is important in Map virulence. Deletion of the relA gene impairs the ability of Map to establish a persistent infection. Analysis of the basis for this observation revealed infection with a relA deletion mutant (ΔrelA) elicits development of cytotoxic CD8 T cells (CTL) with the ability to kill intracellular bacteria. Further analysis of the recall response elicited by ΔrelA vaccination showed a 35 kDa membrane peptide (MMP) is one of the targets of the immune response, suggesting it might be possible to develop a peptide-based vaccine based on MMP. To explore this possibility, ex vivo vaccination studies were conducted with MMP alone and incorporated into a nanoparticle (NP) vector comprised of poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) and monophosphoryl lipid A (PLGA/MPLA). As reported, ex vivo vaccination studies showed CD8 CTL were elicited with classic and monocyte derived dendritic cells (cDC and MoDC) pulsed with MMP alone and incorporated into a PGLA/MPLA vector. Incorporation of MMP into a NP vector enhanced the ability of CD8 CTL to kill intracellular bacteria. The findings indicate incorporation of MMP into a PGLA/MPLA nanoparticle vector is one of the possible ways to develop a MMP based vaccine for Johne’s disease. Keywords: Zoonotic pathogen Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Propidium monoazide Flow cytometry Intracellular killing Monocyte derived dendritic cells Cytotoxic T cells Bovine”

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