John Garner

mPEG-PLGA used in development of bacteria-killing fibers to prevent oral biofilms

Blog Post created by John Garner on Aug 13, 2019

Infections of the teeth and gumlines are extremely common and can lead to severe complications especially after surgical implantation as well as in disease states. One strategy to deal with these infections is to generate implant surfaces which release antibacterial agents. Recently, researchers at University of Louisville used mPEG-PLGA (PolyVivo AK026) from PolySciTech (www.polyscitech.com) to develop antibacterial nanoparticles. Read more: Mahmoud, Mohamed Yehia. "Development of BAR-peptide nanoparticles and electrospun fibers for the prevention and treatment of oral biofilms." PhD Dissertation University of Louisville (2019). https://ir.library.louisville.edu/etd/3162/

“Abstract (synopsis): Periodontal diseases are globally prevalent inflammatory disorders that affect ~47% of U.S adults. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) has been identified as a “keystone” pathogen that disrupts host-microbe homeostasis and contributes to the initiation and progression of periodontitis.  To address these challenges, we hypothesized that BARsurface modified and BAR-encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) may more potently inhibit and disrupt biofilms in vitro and in vivo, relative to free BAR. BAR-encapsulated and BAR-surface modified PLGA NPs were synthesized using adapted double- and single-emulsion techniques, respectively. Electrospun fibers were formed using a uniaxial approach, with different hydrophobic polymers (PLGA, polycaprolactone, poly(L-lactic acid)); each blended with different polyethylene oxide ratios (PEO: 0, 10, 20, or 40% w/w) to achieve maximal release of BAR. Both BAR-encapsulated NPs and EFs were assessed for inhibition of two-species biofilm formation and for disruption of pre-existing biofilms, against an equimolar free BAR concentration. BAR-encapsulated NPs and EFs inhibited biofilm formation (IC50s = 0.7 and 1.3 μM, respectively) in a dose-dependent manner, relative to free BAR (IC50 = 1.3 µM). In addition, BAR-encapsulated NPs and EFs efficiently disrupted established dual-species biofilms (IC50s = 1.3 and 2 μM, respectively). Treatment of Pg/Sg infected mice with BAR-surface modified NPs reduced alveolar bone loss and IL-17 expression almost to the levels of sham-infected mice and to a greater extent than treatment with an equimolar amount of free BAR. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies, which utilized the maximum concentration of BARencapsulated NPs, BAR-surface modified NPs, BAR EFs, and free BAR (1.3 and 3.4 μM) demonstrated > 90% viability for all samples and showed no significant lysis or apoptosis relative to untreated cells. These data suggested that BAR NPs and EFs provide novel and potent platforms to inhibit and disrupt dual-species biofilms.”

 

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