Role of Metoprolol Tartrate for the Treatment of Hypertension
Metoprolol tartrate is a white or almost white crystalline powder with the chemical name (±)-1-(isopropylamino)-3-[p-(2-methoxyethyl) phenoxy]-2-propanol (+)-tartrate (2:1). It is a selective β1 receptor blocker used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, aortic dissection, cardiac arrhythmia, hyperthyroidism, and other diseases. Of these, it is most commonly used to treat hypertension. Hypertension is characterized by persistently high blood pressure in the systemic arteries, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is the most important modifiable risk factor for all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide.
Mechanism of action
Activated β1 receptors cause the elevation of blood pressure. Metoprolol tartrate is a β1 receptor inhibitor that competitively blocks β1 receptors with minimal or no effects on β2 receptors. This inhibition decreases myocardial contractility and slows down heart rate, leading to the reduction of cardiac output, thereby lowering blood pressure. In this process, metoprolol tartrate does not exhibit membrane stabilizing or intrinsic sympathomimetic activity.